Sunday, March 31, 2019

Peer Editing for Essay Writing

Peer Editing for analyse WritingThe aim of this show was to find out whether the subroutine by means of Wikispaces jockstraps to correct errors make in captivatek piece by chassis Four students of a suffer School in Kinta district, Perak. This final chapter stands a summary of this seek study. It is divided into four parts conclusions, implications, limitations and recommendations for both coiffe and advance research establish on the findings discussed in Chapter 4.ConclusionsThe pursuance conclusions be based on the three research questions of the study. Each question and its associated conclusions advance be discussed.Research appargonnt motion 1- What are the errors that L2 students frequently edit in essay writing?This study has found that grammar is the most frequently edit speech aspect in essay writing by the L2 students. even off though, weekly coding sheets and frequency epitome showed different outcomes for DE1 and DE2, T fitted 4.1 prove that gramma r is button up considered as the frequently edited oral communication aspect with a total of 307 (37.4%) errors. This is in line with similar findings of several previous studies as mentioned in the literature review (Maros et.al, 2007 Muhari, 2008 Nor Hashimah et. al., 2008 Darus and Subramaniam, 2009 Darus and Khor, 2009 Wee, 2009).The interview transcripts revealed that the students concentrated more on grammar compared to other(a) language aspects since grammar is indisputably an essential element of second language writing (Frodesen Christine, 2003). Furthermore, field nones illustrated that the students in this study seem to find new intimacy of the five language aspects, and they did not repeat the same mistakes in following essay writing. In fact, the students realization of being critical for other language aspects besides grammar came into an act after gradual coiffe of couple edit by dint of Wikispaces. Conversely, sentence structure is reported as the hardly apply language aspect by the students in the DE1 and DE2.Research Question 2-How does the pulmonary tuberculosis of comrade modify by means of Wikispaces help in correcting L2 students writing?The findings of this study suggested that in general peer redaction through Wikispaces could help to slenderise errors in L2 students writing. The primary findings from the students essays reported that the students were able to correct most of the errors instead well through online collaborative bodily process. The language errors identified could be utilize as a guideline for L2 students to equip themselves with the adequate neckledge and skills in writing essays. They would be benefited the most if they were able to comprehend the conventions and features of this specific context.However, as for the unidentified errors by students, the t distributivelyer plays the critical role in evince them in the classroom. The t to each oneer should clearly explain the rules and bear a cha w of examples as well as provide ample of opportunity to the students to hold, originate and practice on their aver. This can be done by acquiring them involved in various immersion activities in class and a way of life the classroom. It will eventu each(prenominal)y help the learners to be more alert of the crabby language aspects in their essays. Besides that, in that location were also tendencies for students to correct errors amiss(p)ly when change others work. This situation could be overcome through consistent practice of peer editing.Both questionnaire and feedback forms revealed more positive impressions of the students towards the usefulness of peer editing through Wikispaces in correcting L2 students writing. Additionally, several characteristics and strengths of Wikispaces also supported the peer editing bodily process. In short, peer editing through Wikispaces is seen as a expensive learn process which can foster independent learning.Research Question 3-How d o L2 students respond to the feedback provided by their peers through Wikispaces?Based on the analysis of interview transcripts, it can be concluded that majority of the students showed mixed responses when receiving and expectant comments on Wikispaces. solely overall, the students were satisfied with the kind of comments given by their base members due to several good reasons comments given were useful, helped them to increase knowledge, correct mistakes in essays. Apart from that, a number of usefulness of the comments and benefits from peer editing and braggart(a) comments to others were also pointed out with reference to the selected descriptions taken from the interview transcripts.In a nutshell, the findings have led the research worker to conclude that the use of peer editing through Wikispaces is an effective alternative way in correcting errors in students essay writing.ImplicationsThe implications of this study can be best explained by three aspects, namely (i) pedago gy, (ii) social, and (iii) technology. These are elaborated in the paragraphs below.Pedagogical ImplicationsStudentsThe use of peer editing through Wikispaces has the potential to uphold various pedagogical approaches such as case based learning, collaborative pedagogy strategy-knowledge co-construction activities.StudentsThis proficiency which serves as an kindly alternative way of error correction also supports the designed learning activities that are to perform in any group kinetics. Hence, this allows the students to share, negotiate and co-construct schooling on error correction in their writing. The peers can even provide suggestions and advices through discussion tab. In other words, the platform itself is considered as an impound space for students whereby they can take ownership of their own pages in groups.Nevertheless, peer editing through Wikispaces helps to promote learning in the Zone of proximal Development (ZPD). At this point, students enjoy working in groups. They learn more by working in groups rather than they work by themselves. by means of the correspondence and collaboration among the group members, the students do stand a take place to discover and learn about the grammatical rules from their peers. Both correct and incorrect versions act as a guide to the students on what is right and what is wrong. In the initial stage, they may make miscategorise the errors, but it will be separate after consistent practice.teachersThe students English proficiency is different in a class, which can be perceived through various errors students have made in their essays. In an ESL teaching context where the classroom population is neat larger and larger, its a good channel for a teacher to know his or her students learning through the errors or mistakes they make. So teachers should make constitution of these errors and analyze them to find the possible causes of them, and then decide on the appropriate way to enable students to learn from the errors. In this study, one can see that its common for students to make the so-called mistakes, and that through peer editing activity such mistakes can be corrected generally, which can not whole improve the students language proficiency, but also promote their sense of perfecting the language in writing.The teacher plays the role of moderator and facilitator. Wikispaces features enable the teacher to track and superintend students development process (history logs). It helps to keep systematic records of daily reflections, announcements, due dates and attendance.Text-editorTeacherposting of instructions and other resources (multiple modes) by teachersa platform for students to abridge and explain their actions (decisions) inthe course of their activitiesComment feature-allows the teacher to provide feedback when infallible errors wrongly corrected and errors which are not identified. In addition, it also promotes collaborative learning.Social ImplicationsPeer editing throu gh Wikispaces supports a variety of interactions and their dynamics peer-peer, student-teacher. Students can publish their thoughts and obtain feedback from the others at any date. They do not have to depend much on the teacher. Students can turn to others for help when they encounter problems through asynchronous communication group discussions and personal messages. It is a safe and comfortable learning environment for students to work within. Students are able to draft and modify postings before and after publishing. This will likely give them time to think, amend and improve on the postings suitable to their audiences or for other specific purposes. Additionally, Wikispaces utilities support group work as well as foster group dynamics cohesiveness.Technological ImplicationsThe peer editing activity through Wikispaces is a web-based application. Thus, it can be conveniently accessible all time (as long as there is Internet connection). Students could easily learn and use as it d oes not require any high technological skills to set up the account. Particularly, the text editor toolbar is similar to that of Microsoft Word. This may then serve as an advantage for those students who are computer literate.Limitations of the StudyA number of limitations were present in the research. These limitations need to be noted and considered in relation to the research procedures and research findings. Basically, there are three limitations time constraints, small sample size and limited capacity of doing peer editing on Wikispaces.Firstly, this research was actually scheduled for eight weeks of data collection. But fewhow, the data collection procedures which have been planned earlier could not be carried out due to the school holidays. As a result, the researcher has to melt off the duration to five weeks after negotiating with the administrators of the school. In fact, the researcher decided to miss more time then what has been scheduled in order to give the student s more guidance and pace to do their peer editing in the computer lab. Although the latter data collection went on well, but still it would have been better if more time with were provided for the research procedures.Secondly, the findings are achieved based on the small sample size, covering only one Smart School located in Kinta district, Perak. There are still legion(predicate) Smart Schools located all over Perak and other states. Besides that, there are also many matter schools with similar facilities and criterion participants. Therefore, the researcher suggests carrying out further studies on this topic involving other Smart Schools and National Schools in Malaysia.Thirdly, students were found having some difficulties while doing the peer editing on the same page at one time. It seemed that clashes and overlapping disrupted the students financial aid while editing. In this situation, it is vital for the teacher to plan the design of the Wikispaces decently at the initial stage as Wikispaces comes with a blank space. The teacher may group up the students but necessarily assign each student with their own page. This solution will definitely reduce the hazard of future clashing during the peer editing sessions.RecommendationsFrom the conclusions, the present study proves that the use of peer editing through Wikispaces gives positive implications for the teacher (the researcher) and the students. Therefore, this action which serves as an alternative way in correcting students errors in writing should be implied in secondary schools. However, several recommendations for practice and thereafter for future research are discussed below.Recommendations for PracticeAs for recommendations, the use of peer editing through Wikispaces should be exposed to teachers in schools. Certainly, there are teachers who are not aware of the benefits of peer editing and giving comments to others in terms of the students essay writing. Furthermore, some are busy with their d aily work. They do not have affluent time to spend on trying out this kind of proficiency with their students. Perhaps, as for the start, it is recommended that may be the head panels should be given the training, and afterward an in-house training can be given to rest of the teachers.Other than that, the use of peer editing through Wikispaces is a suitable learning technique that helps and leads the learners to be independent learners. Nowadays, most the students are no longer the placid and passive ones in the classroom. Students prefer something new, challenging and suit their interest as well. Teachers impart knowledge to the students. Then, students will themselves discover the knowledge on their own and apply them into other matters.Recommendations for Future ResearchIn the light of the limitations with realise to the findings available to the researcher, it is recommended that further research related to error correction is needed. It would be interesting to find out the A profound study involving each type of would provide further information on the pattern of in a specific context. The information derived from the findings on language errors was insufficient for making any generalization. In terms of the itself, much work needs to be done to uncover some knowledge on the .With all these studies, hopefully all the underlying can be overturned and bring benefits to all. abstractThis chapter has presented the conclusions, implications, limitations and recommendations for both practice and further research based on the findings discussed in the previous chapter. The conclusions have shown that the use of peer editing through Wikispaces has a great impact in correcting errors in the L2 students essay writing. This alternative way has proven to be an effective technique and the students involvement in the peer editing was thus enhanced. Students could correct most of the errors quite well through online collaborative activity. Furthermore, most of the f indings obtained were fared positively. These outcomes show that the use peer editing through Wikispaces should be employed in teaching and learning of writing. This study has further implied in three aspects pedagogy, social and technology. Last but not least, limitations of the research were highlighted and recommendations for both practice and future research were suggested.

Influence of Twnety20 Cricket on Cricket Stakeholders

Influence of Twnety20 flow on victimize S jamholdersCHAPTER matchless1.0 insertion1.1 IntroductionThis look into on the stupor of 2020 play on reveal aspect(a) play attempts to explore the apprehension of few(prenominal) primary and petty(a) s victorioussholders of the pole in the adult male-wide arna. Twenty20 play is matchless of the richest industries, which is valued at just ab fall out a zillion dollar across the worldly concern. Twenty20 play is iodine of the worlds boasts with galore(postnominal) en and soiastic decomposeicipants, sweethe nontextual matters as sound as media interest. Twenty20 play has sparked raw vitality and provided redemption to play completely over the globe. The Twenty20 stochastic vari satisfactory of the feisty has been a major f illuminateor in attempting to pull forth globalize, commercialize and familiarize the risque. play is star the near checkisted and fountainhead- wantd pole in the world. pla y is an naturalized police squad romp for hundreds of years and real mutual target in countries much(prenominal) as India, Pakistan, West Indies, in the south Africa and England. Like a nonher(prenominal) versioning symboliseivities, 2020 play is a master copy lark that is sought after by both men and women due to its numerous easily(p) attri only ifes. This popular and beneficial swear out at law non only provides you physical fitness however rational strong suit and sharpness too. A athletic competition helps a person in build a in truth positive attitude. It has similarly hold up a scratch up out of education and routines of slew. The main of the question is to de boundine the feign of xx20 play shimmer on internationalist play. This chapter tends to outline arse reason of the paper and fuss statement. In accessory, it discusses the look for questions, inquiry objectives and the signifi commodece of the amour apart from presenting t he look for outline.1.2 theater of operations of postulate BackgroundThe origin of play blow provoke be traced from the request in time of the dark ages, probably after the Roman Empire, al vigorous-nigh decidedly forward to the Normans invading England and almost certainly some(a)where in Union atomic number 63. particular(prenominal) evidences suggest the fact that this enlivened was started in Saxon or Norman times by children living in south eastmost part of England in an bea of dense woodlands agnizen as Weald. It is gener for each wholenessy considerd that play was to a greater intent of a children bet on rather than the adults. It was taken up by the adults in 17th coulomb and since then(prenominal), this caper continued to ontogeny its popularity and man acceptance and never looked sanction. As far as the trope of term play is concerned it is broadly speaking commitd that this word had various executable sources. The earlier source is trac ed bear to 1598 when it was called as play. It is imagination to be derived from set Dutch term krick meaning a stick. at that place ar an some early(a)(prenominal) name withal avail able which all suggest the possible stake of Dutch in this sport. The impale of play is demand sexn to be spanning from the sixteenth century with matches organism play since 1844, although officially International visitation play was compete from the year 1877 onwards. ravel play is the oldest and desireest do work up of play. It is also considered as the most reliable and challenging salmagundi of play to tax the deserving of whatever police squad where 2 innings are contend by all(prenominal) aggroup. After the toss the group that squash racquets foremost gobs on as legion(predicate) runs as possible and declares the innings. Then comes the mold of other team and so the match goes on until the final go. The popularity and beguile of quiz cricket is decrea sing cardinal-four hours by sidereal day beca aim of the foot of in the alto trip upher more(prenominal) pleasantle forms of cricket. Hopwood (2005) argues that the farinaceous of cricket has been governed by the rules for more than 250 years. The Marylebone play Club has been an authoritative figure in ordainting forrard the rules of cricket and its subsequent amendments. In the year 2000, the MCC revised the rules of play and introduced tint of play to the laws of the impale to maintain the unique character and enjoyment of the endorse. whiz day cricket is the most recognizable and viewed form of cricket in the world. It is being played and go steadyed by the tidy sum with broad enthusiasm. The most popular termination World Cup of cricket is also based on the designing of one day cricket. Most of the primary(prenominal) and popular championships in cricket are based on one day matches. The one- day international cricket is a late twentieth century rise up ment. On fifth January 1971, startle ODI was played between Australia and England and till now it is very popular among the cricket fans. cricket matches are played and samed by the people on national and international level (Birley, 2003). in that location are many a(prenominal) an(prenominal) parts of cricket the wish rise up coun shew cricket, ball club cricket, indoor cricket, womens cricket and cricket for blinds, but the most prominent and popular triad types of cricket which are recognized by ICC (International play Council) are stress cricket, one-day and wisely originated form xx20 cricket. The arrival of Twenty20 on the cricketing scene has incontestablely divided the cricketing fraternity. round believe that it is nothing but a travesty and should not be support at any cost. They argue that since Twenty20 encourages far-from-technical cricket youngsters wanting to interrupt up the plump for pull up stakes be misguided into believing that cricket is a ll about trying to hit 6s and 4s no matter how you do it. in addition it provide create the mis conception that cricket is a batsmans mealy and that thither is very weensy incentive in bowling since it is the bowlers that are usually the ones at the receiving end. In much(prenominal)(prenominal) a scenario very few youngsters dexterity take up bowling or bother learning the correct points of the craft. overconfident in that respect is al charges the argument that Twenty20 cricket get out wean apart interest from the traditional formats of the jeopardize, particularly Test cricket. However, opinion regarding Twenty20 cricket subdued remains divided as its parentrs insist that it give not transpose any of the traditional formats but on the contrary forget outgrowth interest in them by pulling more people towards cricket as a whole. They also argue that the Twenty20 format is a great panache of introducing cricket to the non-cricketing world which is utilize to fasting poles such as football. on that point is no motion that the T20 version of the game has cash in ones chips the most popular and acceptable in the recent times but it cannot be said that other forms of the games lay down been overlooked. After the commencement of T20 cricket, many thought that the test cricket pull up stakes be gradually extinguish from the cricket world. It is however wrong to say. All the legends of cricket still unwaveringly believe that test cricket is the toughest and most resilient form of cricket which gets the surpass of any sham. Test cricket judges mental mogul and strong point, the huskiness and resilience factor and various other things of the player which twenty 20 cricket cannot judge.The game of Twenty20 sport involves two teams each has a sensation innings, batting for a maximum of 20 overs. Twenty20 game is consummate in about three hours, with each innings last(a)ing around 75 minutes, thus bringing the game closer to the time span of other popular team sports such as football (Hopwood, 2005). It was introduced to create a live form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and vie make itg consultation on television. Since its inception the game has spread around the cricket world. The musical theme of a shortened format of the game at a professional level was discussed by the incline and Wales play circuit cardin 1998 and 2001. When theBenson and Hedges Cupended in 2002, theEnglish and Wales play shape up leaded another one day competition to ingest its frame. The cricketing regimen were looking to boost the games realize and popularity with the younger generation in reply to d encouragedling crowds and reduced slip by goingship. It was intended to deliver fast paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were gift off by the longer versions of the game (test cricket and one-day international cricket). Stuart Robertson, the carrying manager of the English and Wales cricket dialog box, proposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11-7 in kick upstairs of adopting the youthful format. more than 30 focus groups were mobilized. 4,000, 15-minute, face-to-face interviews were set up to pot the unexclusive appetite for the game. The image of play in England had always been that of a sport which is slow-paced, sedate and boring. The audiences identified the length of the matches to be very long, albeit Test stop cricket (5 days) of oneness- twenty-four hour period play (8 hours). Easton (1996) argues that the habitual perception and image in the minds of the populace was that play is a sort of sport which more a lot than not results in boring draws (Test cricket). Even in one-day cricket (50 overs), the batsmen would come to their runs at a pretty slow rate resulting in a muffle spectacle for the crowds attending to watch matches at the various cricket grounds. Hopwood (2005) maint ains that the England and Wales Cricket gameboard had initially introducedTwenty20 cricket as a way to get the crowds back in home(prenominal) cricket. The first Twenty20 Cup in 2003 (now contend as the Friends Provident T20) was grocery storeed with the sloganI dont wish cricket, I spang itand it was aimed oddly at the youth rather than the cricket connoisseur. It was meant to be a game that would bring the entire family together for an evening of fun and bazaar like atmosphere. The finals of the 2003 Twenty20 Cup (in 2003) saw performances by pop stars and rock bands and the ships company like atmosphere made it an evening to remember. It was a huge conquest as the crowds were pleasantly taken by surprise. More than the cricket on matter the idea was to drive home fun cricket just provided the means. This was the fast fare of cricket and the people just loved every integrity bite. Since then Twenty20 has slowly risen in popularity. The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in theTwenty20 Cup (now know as the Friends Provident T20). The first season of Twenty20 in England was a coitus mastery, with theSurrey Lionsdefeating theWarwickshire Bearsby 9 wickets in the final to claim theTwenty20 Cup1.3 Problem financial statementThis study focuses on crickets problem of enduring a severe and long held image problem which is proving difficult for the game to turn around and which is without doubt push the potential of cricket to draw vital media and monetary support. Critics fall in been leveled a crystallizest debut of twenty20 cricket. Public Relations activities being critical to the future of the game digest not been implemented to the level that it should be or many in the game would like it to be. Many pick out argued that since Twenty20 encourages far-from-technical cricket, youngsters wanting to peck at up the game go out be misguided into believing that cricket is all about trying to hit 6s and 4s no matter how you do it. Besides, test cricket which is considered the pinnacle of the game whitethorn soon expect the absence seizure of quality international players as cricketers such as Andrew Flintoff of England have retired from Test Cricket to accommodate themselves in Twenty20 Cricket amongst other international cricketers such as Paul Collingwood and Kevin Pietersen skipping the home(prenominal) County Cricket season in the linked Kingdom to play for the cash lucrative Indian premier(a) League. The implications of such incidents may only result in English Domestic Cricket losing out on precious players and as a result weakness to attract audiences and generating revenues for the English Domestic game. English and Wales Cricket board has played a critical office in the introduction of twenty 20 cricket to the world but at that place has always been a inactive feeling that the English International cricket team has been self-contradictory in their performances at the one-day international level (50 over cricket). Some experts in the game have linked the inconsistency of the international side to the geomorphologic problems in county cricket. Other people argue that twenty 20 cricket will create the misconception that cricket is a batsmans game and that there is very little incentive in bowling since it is the bowlers that are usually the ones at the receiving end. In twenty 20 cricket, at most times the pitches prompt are tailor made for batsmen to go for their strokes and put up bigger totals on the board. In such a scenario very few youngsters cogency take up bowling or bother learning the better points of the craft. The sport of twenty 20 cricket faces another problem of leave out of quintuplet test match series object for the Ashes. What could be better conform to to sustain the interest of the cricket fan than have England tour India or vice-versa for a five test match series. Instead, we have two-Test series o rdered at the last minute by the English and Wales Cricket menu. zip can anticipate or attend nobody is cheery except perhaps the broadcasters whose contracts are fulfilled. there is film for English and Wales Cricket Board to watch that there is no requirement for saturation and committing overkill by scheduling cricket all year around. Instead, just stage and promote the moving picture series properly, and Test crickets unique qualities will take alimony of the rest.1.4 investigate QuestionsThis research responds to the problems associated with this study by attempting to evaluate the square up of twenty 20 cricket in accordance with the perception of different stakeholders. because the research questions that this studied tried to answer is listed as indicated belowWhat is the usurpation of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket BoardTo what extent has national coitions and social media activities have an tinge on the domestic (county) first class Twenty 20 CricketWhich is the most favourite(a) type of cricket sport between Test cricket, atomic number 53 daylight Internationals or Twenty20 pretend popular relation activities been put in example by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiencesWhat measures have the English and Wales Cricket Board put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One daytime Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.1.5 Research use up and ObjectivesIn order to obtain the goal of the study, the main aim of the study as puff up as specific objectives in relation to the advert of twenty 20 cricket on international cricket were theorise with research problems and research questions in mind. The aim of the study was to tick off the impact of twenty 20 cricket on international cricket. To be able o obtain the mentioned main objective of the study, five specific research objects were formulated. The specific research ob jectives are stated as indicated belowTo determine the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket BoardTo regulate out whether earthly concern relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 CricketTo establish the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricket, One Day Internationals or Twenty20To investigate whether public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiencesTo consider out the measures that the English and Wales Cricket Board have put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.1.6 Significance of the study lark intentness sum up quite considerably to the development of different nations across the globe hence this study is freeing to play a very important role in demystifying the implication of the introduction of twenty 20 cricket in the world of sport. Such information can be use by different stakeholder such as nations, industry players, players, spectators and the general public as substantially as students. Industry managers can use this study to gauge the implication of twenty 20 cricket and the impact it has on the world of sport. This is quite critical because it can be used by different stakeholders to make appropriate strategies that will be for their nigh and the severe of the public. Perception of different stakeholders especially spectators of twenty 20 cricket will be very square in do decisions in relation with the twenty 20 cricket sport. This research will also contribute to the pool of knowledge where students will be able to gain studyful knowledge to help them not only be certain but to also acquire relevant information necessary for the utmost of their studies.CHAPTER twain2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 The Business of rollickianment exemplification wedge of Sou th Africa is a pecuniary services provider, which is a subcomponent of the regularised depone Group. harmonize to pattern savings bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), since 1997, the bank began providing sponsorship to cricket in South Africa. This orifice rejuvenated the back the playing of cricket at local anaesthetic level. The game had tapering spectator s watching the matches. This was also coupled with declining interest. The swear aboard the Cricket South Africa came up with the model of the 20-A-sidec cricket. tally to example coin box Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was in the Year 2004. This knobbed lessening the one-day game of cricket. The concept of the 20-over was meant to last for only three hours. This had reduced number of overs. This made the game more interesting, faster than before and furious. This tenderfangled version of the game of cricket was by and by to be take a crapd the beat cashbox Pro20 series. The objective of the chamfer venturing in Pro20 cricket was to build on their existing high levels of association with cricket in South Africa and demonstrate to their chosen audience (Randall, 2004).According to stock(a) lingo Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was in order to show their stigmatise was among those, which was ahead and was able to undergo changes to a better brand. The move by the savings bank to place the brand closer to the youth that is with sponsoring the local sport of the cricket game in South Africa. Since the coin bank had grassroots mesh with the local play of the sport of the cricket, they also wanted to collaborate with Cricket South Africa so that to repackage the local association of the game (Suite 101, n.d.). According to get along trust Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this is so that to bring vibrancy in the game qualification it more vibrant and lively. According to Standard avow Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), the come with opted for internal marketing campaigns as well as sports cordial reception through thi s, it viewed the scheme of additional opportunity to interact one on one with interested parties of the game on how it is play. The drive for having a unexampled version or revised version of the game was because it meant to bring a regenerate feeling among the traditional perception of the game. This is not for the sake of those who play the games alone but also for those who the sport as a way of entertainment. cancelled the pitch activities were brought as a form extra play and entertainment. This meant to act as an additional treat for excitement viewers were getting on the field. The composite of what resulted made the game more exciting and unique. The shell evince used to recognize the resultant mathematical crop of this was sportainment. According to Standard depose Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was a composite of both sports and entertainment.The phrase authentic meant to yield priority to the essence of Standard Bank Pro20 cricket. According to standard Bank Pro 2 0 cricket (n.d.) the game took the design that features three mainstay experiences. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are in general cricket, pipe bowl and broadcast. The nexus between the three pillars gave the stakeholders the integrated treat of sportainment. The conception into the sport of cricket thought out and imported courtesy of the collaborated grounds of Standard Bank South Africa jointly with Cricket South Africa (Cricket Web, 2010). The driveway involved the bringing in of new dugouts for players at the ides of the field. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this meant to enhance game watching by the audience sitting on the bench with clarity. The game increased he make haste at which the players played the game (BBC, 2006). This saw the facilitation of faster changes in the batsmen. The new type of the dropped some of the old team play and umpire kit out designs this meant to alter the appeal while watching the game. Accordi ng to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), they took the measure to move the umpires into the field carried by vehicles that bore the name of the brands on the side. There was notable change on the play of the game. This was especially on the batting style. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), there was the introduction of a free hit for a no ball. In the bowl there, standard Bank tailored the Hard Hats for fans. There was statistical distribution to fans of headdress for protection against the significant number of fours and sixes expected in the new boundary-bashing version. There was improvement make that came with additional cameras for broadcast purpose. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are non-fixed and could be moveable that is from one place to another. When there are international matches in the Pro20 cricket series, more acclaim and pretense were in addition to the pipe bowl. Professional dancers would be ushered into the podium. A DJ carrel will come in practised, which are in stance fit(p) at an elevated level. The jet horizontal digital boards for denote were removable and in their place put enhanced ones. These new ones have more features. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are wider just advocate Towers. They used to communicate messages. In addition, they have images that parallel the perform that is taking place in the field. When SuperSport came on board, this came with untested initiatives to support. These provided with the cricket and stadium an experience. The experience is for live ball-by-ball viewers. The commentators trans-located impudently to the grandstands, as it was not like before. Previously, these were armament at the media suite as well as the commentary boxes. In this new position, they are able to interact with spectators. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this is especially at the breaks of the games. The new facelift accompanied with provi ding the field master key with an earpiece together with a lapel microphone. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), the commentators capacitated so that they can link directly link in perception and mind with the players. This is at opportunity moments of the game. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), live interviews conducted with the outgoing batsmen after each wicket. Heart-rate monitors attached to some of players on the field. This meant to provide those watching via television broadcast with additional action from the field (Hubbard and Thomas, 2007).2.2 The Business Side of CricketAccording to Easton (1996) the communication to influence peoples ideas, theories as well as feelings used through analogies. This is a common practice in the field of agate line. A clear analogy occurs between the field of sports and product line occurrences. In order to win a game of cricket ones asks a well thought out outline (Savicca, 2011). This is a similar case as in the condescension fraternity. There is need to think about how the situation will be in the field. This is like an objective visioning the pedigree venture that is, accompanied with an analysis of the strengths as well as weaknesses. There is a lookout for threats as well as opportunities lingering around the business. The cricket strategy for having the vision is to develop a new product. According to Easton (1996), this has bases on a crop of new players. There is need to prepare for strong wickets which will assure the goes back post after a game with the victory. This is like a market strategy. This is where chances for success are vital. Like a business scenario there is need to know what kind of product one is offering to the market. This followed by a fetching formula, which is the marketing blend in. According to Easton (1996), the same applies to the game of cricket.There is need to know the kind of players one has and how to formulate a workable strategy to win ba sed on their skills. In describing what kind of product that is indispensable in the sport of cricket there is need to screen the kind of players one has at his disposal. According to Easton (1996), just like determining the bell of the product the analogy in the game of cricket is the level which to view on players that you field during the playing of the game, that is, what role exceed fit each player when on the field of cricket. This resembles how to distribute resources in the case of a business set up. The thought one has to have is about the strength that will promote the possibility for a victory, that is, how one ensures that, the other team has been defeated. According to Easton (1996), this thought out done even before the game begins. skillful like the way one thinks out how the marketing mix is going to be done one has to formulate a strategy that enables to understand the game when playing at home as well as when playing at the opponents home turfs. As it happens elsewhere, one has to keep watch on the ongoing in the marketing front. One has to canvas business performance with the occurrences in the market sales and profit as well as the market share. According to Easton (1996), in the case of the game of cricket one has to compare their performance within the league and find out how to improve play. That is at the team level. At member level, one can assess their capacity in the bowling and batting. The opportune to encompass in business is just as important as the way it may be in a game of cricket. Any headwaiter who has had to carry to a seasoned opening batsman that he should bat further down the order will need the very best marketing skills. A skipper ought to know how the team would move in to their victory. These are the success factors of the game. According to Easton (1996), skipper must ensure that the hold is at five an over or endeavor to make sure the oppose teams best batsman remains always off the strike throughout th e game. The rest of other team members should have already know the game plan that the skipper has in mind. This enables the team to launch their maneuver without any ado. Because the opponent has opinion that is always to be on toes to know the tactics on application by the opponent by reviewing what has done throughout the past games played, then the team has to deliver a heavy product. These make the defeats inevitable. According to Easton (1996), in order to make levelheaded out of a game through a win then these success has been testify through judgment how to cohere as a team. There is need to understand capabilities of each member in the team so that to get the best out of them. These same applies to a business deal there is need to know the capacities of different dealers in the chain to make good out of them. According to Easton (1996), it is true that the business is for the people by the people. Thus, those act in a transaction are the ones who make up the business. leading in a game of cricket is held to create an place that will drive the team to a common purpose. The common for the team during a game is to win. The team just like a business will for the human communities that have brought together for a common purpose. That is why some underdogs have surprised the big names of the game. According to Easton (1996), understanding the team members, how they react, their skill levels and how best to utilize them, and aligning them to achieve a common goal is vital to the leaders success. During the headingly test, Mike Brearly the skipper show this brilliantly. According to Easton (1996), in the game of cricket just as in the business front there is need to understand each such that role are set out clearly for every player. This can be on bases of what one is best base on what to do. It should also matter on placing people based on how they consider themselves during a win or redness. According to Easton (1996), this can be likened to LIFO s cathe this is in the way they to assess he bearing when the going is well and how their behavior when they are under pressure. The team may design in a way these factors well taken care of. According to Easton (1996), for instance, who comes in handy to be supporting the captain? Who is suited to do the try as well as serve as the captain of the side? Who will give their place up as a supervene upon in the batting in order to save the team from a loss? There exit several types of mixes and types that make up the world of cultures in business. These could include the power, people, task as well as role. honest like in business the game of cricket, this is the same (Fischer, n.d.).2.3 Actuating a Sport as a BusinessAccording to Goldman and Johns (2009), any game at the level of business of sport must show how it is economicalally significant at all the levels of the society. This makes it an important component both as an economic activity as well as wealth creation. foodstuff re search has shown those willing to invest in sports sponsorship this has risen since 2003 by a 29 percent residuum, which best estimated to be US$2.4 billion. This makes part of a proportion of the larger global sponsorship industry. This best estimated to be about US$28 billion in 2004. In the case of South Africa, the tot up of money put into the sport as a direct expense in terms of sports sponsorship has increased. In 1991, the amount spent in terms of sponsorship was R 207 million but this rose such that in 2000 the amount was R 1billion. Recent case studies show that the amount spent in the sport has risen to 2.6 billion Rand. These studies have further shown that another R 2.2 one million million has spent on leveraging sponsorship. A case in point to identify with is the 1984 when the Los Angeles hosted the Olympics. The Olympics significantly boosted sports marketing. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), this causa turned mutant into a sponsored business. This becam e the first to be operational on revenues generated by snobbish sponsor revenues. The other Olympics operated on a bid to generate profit.In addition to the competition that is experience on the field, sports teams also compete for favor from spectators, media coverage, brand sponsors, product consumers as well as bidding investors. From this perspective, this is making sportsmanlike action become a business entity. This is with professional counseling. Those in management will rather perceive those in their sport team as a brand and are important to sell in the sport club. Thus, the sports icons are rather making sure every sports event is a value addition. This makes them important in the public eye. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), these makes them become valuable and can attract and influence the perception and attitude of other stakeholders the game. Sports Clubs like Manchester United, Real Madrid as well as the bran-new York Yankees have set pace in showing the valu e of product stigmatization in games is all about? This act makes the sports seem rather to act severally when displayed. The venture is such that the brand can sell independently of the athlete success. Take for instance the case of Real Madrid. In the football season of 2003/2004, they made up to 64.3 million in the form of merchandising sales. Out of the revenue generated, the brand sold 1.5 million shirts broadly to other countries. The clubs at the helm of football action, mainly based in Europe collectively grew by a margin of 11%, which is similar to 3.7 billion in 2006/2007. During this time Real Madrid was rated as the first club to make up revenue of 360 million. Research has classified the art of sports marketing in to two versions. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), there is marketing of sports as well as marketing with sports. The marketing of sports involves marketing strategies of sports events as well as sports kits to a target audience of the players, athlet es as wInfluence of Twnety20 Cricket on Cricket StakeholdersInfluence of Twnety20 Cricket on Cricket StakeholdersCHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 IntroductionThis research on the impact of twenty20 cricket on international cricket attempts to explore the perception of both primary and secondary stakeholders of the game in the international arena. Twenty20 cricket is one of the richest industries, which is valued at around a billion dollar across the globe. Twenty20 cricket is one of the worlds sports with many enthusiastic participants, spectators as well as media interest. Twenty20 Cricket has sparked new life and provided redemption to cricket all over the globe. The Twenty20 version of the game has been a major factor in attempting to further globalize, commercialize and spread the game. Cricket is one the most popular and well-liked game in the world. Cricket is an established team sport for hundreds of years and very popular in countries such as India, Pakistan, West Indies, Sou th Africa and England. Like other showy activities, twenty20 cricket is a professional sport that is sought after by both men and women due to its numerous beneficial attributes. This popular and beneficial activity not only provides you physical fitness but mental strength and sharpness too. A sport helps a person in building a very positive attitude. It has also become a part of education and routines of people. The main of the research is to determine the impact of twenty20 cricket sport on international cricket. This chapter tends to outline background of the study and problem statement. In addition, it discusses the research questions, research objectives and the significance of the study apart from presenting the research outline.1.2 Study BackgroundThe origin of Cricket sport can be traced from the period of the dark ages, probably after the Roman Empire, almost definitely prior to the Normans invading England and almost certainly somewhere in Northern Europe. Circumstantial evidences suggest the fact that this game was started in Saxon or Norman times by children living in south east part of England in an area of dense woodlands known as Weald. It is generally believed that cricket was more of a children game rather than the adults. It was taken up by the adults in 17th century and since then, this sport continued to increase its popularity and public acceptance and never looked back. As far as the name of term cricket is concerned it is generally believed that this word had various possible sources. The earliest source is traced back to 1598 when it was called as cricket. It is thought to be derived from Middle Dutch term krick meaning a stick. There are another terms also available which all suggest the possible involvement of Dutch in this sport. The game of Cricket is known to be spanning from the 16th century with matches being played since 1844, although officially International Test Cricket was played from the year 1877 onwards. Test cricket is the oldest and longest form of cricket. It is also considered as the most reliable and challenging form of cricket to measure the worth of any team where 2 innings are played by each team. After the toss the team that bats first piles on as many runs as possible and declares the innings. Then comes the turn of other team and so the match goes on until the final result. The popularity and charm of test cricket is decreasing day by day because of the origination of new more exciting forms of cricket. Hopwood (2005) argues that the game of Cricket has been governed by the rules for more than 250 years. The Marylebone Cricket Club has been an authoritative figure in putting forth the rules of cricket and its subsequent amendments. In the year 2000, the MCC revised the rules of Cricket and introduced Spirit of Cricket to the laws of the game to maintain the unique character and enjoyment of the game.One day cricket is the most recognizable and viewed form of cricket in the world. It is being played and watched by the people with great enthusiasm. The most popular event World Cup of cricket is also based on the pattern of one day cricket. Most of the important and popular championships in cricket are based on one day matches. The one- day international cricket is a late twentieth century development. On 5th January 1971, first ODI was played between Australia and England and till now it is very popular among the cricket fans. Cricket matches are played and liked by the people on national and international level (Birley, 2003). There are many types of cricket like country cricket, club cricket, indoor cricket, womens cricket and cricket for blinds, but the most prominent and popular three types of cricket which are recognized by ICC (International Cricket Council) are test cricket, one-day and newly originated form twenty20 cricket. The arrival of Twenty20 on the cricketing scene has surely divided the cricketing fraternity. Some believe that it is nothing but a tra vesty and should not be encouraged at any cost. They argue that since Twenty20 encourages far-from-technical cricket youngsters wanting to pick up the game will be misguided into believing that cricket is all about trying to hit 6s and 4s no matter how you do it. Also it will create the misconception that cricket is a batsmans game and that there is very little incentive in bowling since it is the bowlers that are usually the ones at the receiving end. In such a scenario very few youngsters might take up bowling or bother learning the finer points of the craft. Plus there is always the argument that Twenty20 cricket will wean away interest from the traditional formats of the game, especially Test cricket. However, opinion regarding Twenty20 cricket still remains divided as its promoters insist that it will not replace any of the traditional formats but on the contrary will increase interest in them by pulling more people towards cricket as a whole. They also argue that the Twenty20 format is a great way of introducing cricket to the non-cricketing world which is used to fast games such as football. There is no doubt that the T20 version of the game has become the most popular and acceptable in the recent times but it cannot be said that other forms of the games have been overlooked. After the commencement of T20 cricket, many thought that the test cricket will be gradually extinguished from the cricket world. It is however wrong to say. All the legends of cricket still firmly believe that test cricket is the toughest and most resilient form of cricket which gets the best of any player. Test cricket judges mental ability and strength, the stamina and resilience factor and various other things of the player which twenty 20 cricket cannot judge.The game of Twenty20 sport involves two teams each has a single innings, batting for a maximum of 20 overs. Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 75 minutes, thus bringing the ga me closer to the time span of other popular team sports such as football (Hopwood, 2005). It was introduced to create a lively form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television. Since its inception the game has spread around the cricket world. The idea of a shortened format of the game at a professional level was discussed by the English and Wales Cricket Boardin 1998 and 2001. When theBenson and Hedges Cupended in 2002, theEnglish and Wales Cricket Board needed another one day competition to fill its place. The cricketing authorities were looking to boost the games image and popularity with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship. It was intended to deliver fast paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game (test cricket and one-day international cricket). Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the English and Wales Cricket Board, p roposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11-7 in favor of adopting the new format. More than 30 focus groups were mobilized. 4,000, 15-minute, face-to-face interviews were set up to gauge the public appetite for the game. The image of Cricket in England had always been that of a sport which is slow-paced, sedate and boring. The audiences identified the length of the matches to be very long, albeit Test Match Cricket (5 days) of One-Day Cricket (8 hours). Easton (1996) argues that the general perception and image in the minds of the public was that Cricket is a sort of sport which more often than not results in boring draws (Test Cricket). Even in one-day cricket (50 overs), the batsmen would score their runs at a pretty slow rate resulting in a dull spectacle for the crowds attending to watch matches at the various cricket grounds. Hopwood (2005) maintains that the England and Wales Cricket Board had initially introducedTwenty20 cricket as a way t o get the crowds back in domestic cricket. The first Twenty20 Cup in 2003 (now known as the Friends Provident T20) was marketed with the sloganI dont like cricket, I love itand it was aimed especially at the youth rather than the cricket connoisseur. It was meant to be a game that would bring the entire family together for an evening of fun and carnival like atmosphere. The finals of the 2003 Twenty20 Cup (in 2003) saw performances by pop stars and rock bands and the party like atmosphere made it an evening to remember. It was a huge success as the crowds were pleasantly taken by surprise. More than the cricket on field the idea was to have fun cricket just provided the means. This was the fast food of cricket and the people just loved every single bite. Since then Twenty20 has slowly risen in popularity. The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in theTwenty20 Cup (now known as the Friends Provident T20). The first season of Twenty 20 in England was a relative success, with theSurrey Lionsdefeating theWarwickshire Bearsby 9 wickets in the final to claim theTwenty20 Cup1.3 Problem StatementThis study focuses on crickets problem of enduring a severe and long held image problem which is proving difficult for the game to turn around and which is without doubt affecting the potential of cricket to draw vital media and monetary support. Critics have been leveled against introduction of twenty20 cricket. Public Relations activities being critical to the future of the game have not been implemented to the level that it should be or many in the game would like it to be. Many have argued that since Twenty20 encourages far-from-technical cricket, youngsters wanting to pick up the game will be misguided into believing that cricket is all about trying to hit 6s and 4s no matter how you do it. Besides, test cricket which is considered the pinnacle of the game may soon suffer the absence of quality international players as c ricketers such as Andrew Flintoff of England have retired from Test Cricket to accommodate themselves in Twenty20 Cricket amongst other international cricketers such as Paul Collingwood and Kevin Pietersen skipping the Domestic County Cricket season in the United Kingdom to play for the cash lucrative Indian Premier League. The implications of such incidents may only result in English Domestic Cricket losing out on valuable players and as a result failing to attract audiences and generating revenues for the English Domestic game. English and Wales Cricket Board has played a critical role in the introduction of twenty 20 cricket to the world but there has always been a lingering feeling that the English International cricket team has been inconsistent in their performances at the one-day international level (50 over cricket). Some experts in the game have linked the inconsistency of the international side to the structural problems in county cricket. Other people argue that twenty 20 cricket will create the misconception that cricket is a batsmans game and that there is very little incentive in bowling since it is the bowlers that are usually the ones at the receiving end. In twenty 20 cricket, at most times the pitches prepared are tailor made for batsmen to go for their strokes and put up big totals on the board. In such a scenario very few youngsters might take up bowling or bother learning the finer points of the craft. The sport of twenty 20 cricket faces another problem of lack of five test match series except for the Ashes. What could be better suited to sustain the interest of the cricket fan than have England tour India or vice-versa for a five test match series. Instead, we have two-Test series arranged at the last minute by the English and Wales Cricket Board. Nobody can anticipate or attend nobody is satisfied except perhaps the broadcasters whose contracts are fulfilled. There is need for English and Wales Cricket Board to understand that there is no requirement for saturation and committing overkill by scheduling cricket all year around. Instead, just stage and promote the icon series properly, and Test crickets unique qualities will take care of the rest.1.4 Research QuestionsThis research responds to the problems associated with this study by attempting to evaluate the influence of twenty 20 cricket in accordance with the perception of different stakeholders. Hence the research questions that this studied tried to answer is listed as indicated belowWhat is the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket BoardTo what extent has public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 CricketWhich is the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricket, One Day Internationals or Twenty20Have public relation activities been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiencesWhat measures have the Engli sh and Wales Cricket Board put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.1.5 Research Aim and ObjectivesIn order to obtain the goal of the study, the main aim of the study as well as specific objectives in relation to the impact of twenty 20 cricket on international cricket were formulated with research problems and research questions in mind. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of twenty 20 cricket on international cricket. To be able o obtain the mentioned main objective of the study, five specific research objects were formulated. The specific research objectives are stated as indicated belowTo determine the impact of Twenty20 cricket on the image of English Cricket BoardTo find out whether public relations and social media activities have an impact on the domestic (county) first class Twenty20 CricketTo establish the most preferable type of cricket sport between Test cricke t, One Day Internationals or Twenty20To investigate whether public relation activities have been put in practice by the English and Wales Cricket Board in promoting the Twenty20 game to the audiencesTo find out the measures that the English and Wales Cricket Board have put in place for all the three formats i.e. Test, One Day Internationals and T20 Cricket to survive and co-exist at the international level.1.6 Significance of the studySport industry contribute quite considerably to the development of different nations across the globe hence this study is going to play a very important role in demystifying the implication of the introduction of twenty 20 cricket in the world of sport. Such information can be used by different stakeholder such as nations, industry players, players, spectators and the general public as well as students. Industry managers can use this study to gauge the implication of twenty 20 cricket and the impact it has on the world of sport. This is quite critical because it can be used by different stakeholders to make appropriate strategies that will be for their good and the good of the public. Perception of different stakeholders especially spectators of twenty 20 cricket will be very significant in making decisions in relation with the twenty 20 cricket sport. This research will also contribute to the pool of knowledge where students will be able to gain necessary knowledge to help them not only be informed but to also acquire relevant information necessary for the completion of their studies.CHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 The Business of SportianmentStandard Bank of South Africa is a financial services provider, which is a subcomponent of the Standard Bank Group. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), since 1997, the bank began providing sponsorship to cricket in South Africa. This initiative rejuvenated the back the playing of cricket at local level. The game had dwindling spectator s watching the matches. This was also coupled with declining interest. The Bank alongside the Cricket South Africa came up with the model of the 20-A-sidec cricket. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was in the Year 2004. This involved lessening the one-day game of cricket. The concept of the 20-over was meant to last for only three hours. This had reduced number of overs. This made the game more interesting, faster than before and furious. This new version of the game of cricket was later to be named the Standard Bank Pro20 series. The objective of the Bank venturing in Pro20 cricket was to build on their existing high levels of association with cricket in South Africa and demonstrate to their chosen audience (Randall, 2004).According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was in order to show their brand was among those, which was ahead and was able to undergo changes to a better brand. The move by the Bank to place the brand closer to the youth that is through sponsoring the local sport of the cricket game in South Africa. Since the Bank had grassroots involvement with the local play of the sport of the cricket, they also wanted to collaborate with Cricket South Africa so that to repackage the local experience of the game (Suite 101, n.d.). According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this is so that to bring vibrancy in the game making it more vibrant and lively. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), the company opted for internal marketing campaigns as well as sports hospitality through this, it viewed the strategy of additional opportunity to interact one on one with interested parties of the game on how it is play. The drive for having a new version or revised version of the game was because it meant to bring a renewed feeling among the traditional perception of the game. This is not for the sake of those who play the games alone but also for those who the sport as a way of entertainment. Off the pitch activities were brought as a form extra play and e ntertainment. This meant to act as an additional treat for excitement viewers were getting on the field. The composite of what resulted made the game more exciting and unique. The best phrase used to recognize the resultant product of this was sportainment. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this was a composite of both sports and entertainment.The phrase developed meant to give priority to the essence of Standard Bank Pro20 cricket. According to standard Bank Pro 20 cricket (n.d.) the game took the design that features three pillar experiences. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are mainly cricket, stadium and broadcast. The nexus between the three pillars gave the stakeholders the integrated treat of sportainment. The innovation into the sport of cricket thought out and imported courtesy of the collaborated effort of Standard Bank South Africa jointly with Cricket South Africa (Cricket Web, 2010). The effort involved the bringing in of new dugouts for players at the ides of the field. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this meant to enhance game watching by the audience seated on the bench with clarity. The game increased he speed at which the players played the game (BBC, 2006). This saw the facilitation of faster changes in the batsmen. The new type of the dropped some of the old team tactics and umpire kit designs this meant to improve the appeal while watching the game. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), they took the measure to move the umpires into the field carried by vehicles that bore the name of the brands on the side. There was notable change on the play of the game. This was especially on the batting style. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), there was the introduction of a free hit for a no ball. In the stadium there, standard Bank tailored the Hard Hats for fans. There was distribution to fans of headgear for protection against the significant number of fours and sixes e xpected in the new boundary-bashing version. There was improvement done that came with additional cameras for broadcast purpose. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are non-fixed and could be moveable that is from one place to another. When there are international matches in the Pro20 cricket series, more pomp and color were in addition to the stadium. Professional dancers would be ushered into the podium. A DJ booth will come in handy, which are in position placed at an elevated level. The common horizontal digital boards for advertising were removable and in their place put enhanced ones. These new ones have more features. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), these are wider vertical Power Towers. They used to communicate messages. In addition, they have images that parallel the action that is taking place in the field. When SuperSport came on board, this came with untested initiatives to support. These provided with the cricket and stadium an experi ence. The experience is for live ball-by-ball viewers. The commentators trans-located newly to the grandstands, as it was not like before. Previously, these were host at the media suite as well as the commentary boxes. In this new position, they are able to interact with spectators. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), this is especially at the breaks of the games. The new facelift accompanied with providing the fielding captain with an earpiece together with a lapel microphone. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), the commentators capacitated so that they can link directly link in perception and mind with the players. This is at opportunity moments of the game. According to Standard Bank Pro20 Cricket (n.d.), live interviews conducted with the outgoing batsmen after each wicket. Heart-rate monitors attached to some of players on the field. This meant to provide those watching via television broadcast with additional action from the field (Hubbard and Thomas, 2007).2.2 The Business Side of CricketAccording to Easton (1996) the communication to influence peoples ideas, theories as well as feelings used through analogies. This is a common practice in the field of business. A clear analogy occurs between the battlefield of sports and business occurrences. In order to win a game of cricket ones needs a well thought out strategy (Savicca, 2011). This is a similar case as in the business fraternity. There is need to think about how the situation will be in the field. This is like an objective visioning the business venture that is, accompanied with an analysis of the strengths as well as weaknesses. There is a lookout for threats as well as opportunities lingering around the business. The cricket strategy for having the vision is to develop a new product. According to Easton (1996), this has bases on a crop of new players. There is need to prepare for strong wickets which will assure the goes back home after a game with the victory. This is l ike a market strategy. This is where chances for success are vital. Like a business scenario there is need to know what kind of product one is offering to the market. This followed by a winning formula, which is the marketing mix. According to Easton (1996), the same applies to the game of cricket.There is need to know the kind of players one has and how to formulate a workable strategy to win based on their skills. In describing what kind of product that is needed in the sport of cricket there is need to screen the kind of players one has at his disposal. According to Easton (1996), just like determining the price of the product the analogy in the game of cricket is the level which to depend on players that you field during the playing of the game, that is, what role best fit each player when on the field of cricket. This resembles how to distribute resources in the case of a business set up. The thought one has to have is about the strength that will promote the possibility for a victory, that is, how one ensures that, the other team has been defeated. According to Easton (1996), this thought out done even before the game begins. Just like the way one thinks out how the marketing mix is going to be done one has to formulate a strategy that enables to understand the game when playing at home as well as when playing at the opponents home turfs. As it happens elsewhere, one has to keep watch on the ongoing in the marketing front. One has to compare business performance with the occurrences in the market sales and profit as well as the market share. According to Easton (1996), in the case of the game of cricket one has to compare their performance within the league and find out how to improve play. That is at the team level. At member level, one can assess their capacity in the bowling and batting. The opportune to sell in business is just as important as the way it may be in a game of cricket. Any skipper who has had to sell to a seasoned opening batsman that h e should bat further down the order will need the very best selling skills. A skipper ought to know how the team would move in to their victory. These are the success factors of the game. According to Easton (1996), skipper must ensure that the score is at five an over or endeavor to make sure the opposing teams best batsman remains always off the strike throughout the game. The rest of other team members should have already known the game plan that the skipper has in mind. This enables the team to launch their tactics without any ado. Because the opponent has opinion that is always to be on toes to know the tactics on application by the opponent by reviewing what has done throughout the past games played, then the team has to deliver a good product. These make the defeats inevitable. According to Easton (1996), in order to make good out of a game through a win then these success has been register through understanding how to cohere as a team. There is need to understand capabilitie s of each member in the team so that to get the best out of them. These same applies to a business deal there is need to know the capacities of different dealers in the chain to make good out of them. According to Easton (1996), it is true that the business is for the people by the people. Thus, those participating in a transaction are the ones who make up the business.Leadership in a game of cricket is held to create an authority that will drive the team to a common purpose. The common for the team during a game is to win. The team just like a business will for the human communities that have brought together for a common purpose. That is why some underdogs have surprised the big names of the game. According to Easton (1996), understanding the team members, how they react, their skill levels and how best to utilize them, and aligning them to achieve a common goal is vital to the leaders success. During the headingly test, Mike Brearly the skipper demonstrated this brilliantly. Acco rding to Easton (1996), in the game of cricket just as in the business front there is need to understand each such that role are set out clearly for every player. This can be on bases of what one is best base on what to do. It should also matter on placing people based on how they consider themselves during a win or loss. According to Easton (1996), this can be likened to LIFO terms this is in the way they to assess he behavior when the going is well and how their behavior when they are under pressure. The team may design in a way these factors well taken care of. According to Easton (1996), for instance, who comes in handy to be supporting the captain? Who is suited to do the try as well as serve as the captain of the side? Who will give their place up as a substitute in the batting in order to save the team from a loss? There exit several types of mixes and types that make up the world of cultures in business. These could include the power, people, task as well as role. Just like in business the game of cricket, this is the same (Fischer, n.d.).2.3 Actuating a Sport as a BusinessAccording to Goldman and Johns (2009), any game at the level of business of sport must show how it is economically significant at all the levels of the society. This makes it an important component both as an economic activity as well as wealth creation. Market research has shown those willing to invest in sports sponsorship this has risen since 2003 by a twenty-nine percent proportion, which best estimated to be US$2.4 billion. This makes part of a proportion of the larger global sponsorship industry. This best estimated to be about US$28 billion in 2004. In the case of South Africa, the amount of money put into the sport as a direct expenditure in terms of sports sponsorship has increased. In 1991, the amount spent in terms of sponsorship was R 207 million but this rose such that in 2000 the amount was R 1billion. Recent case studies show that the amount spent in the sport has rise n to 2.6 billion Rand. These studies have further shown that another R 2.2 Billion has spent on leveraging sponsorship. A case in point to identify with is the 1984 when the Los Angeles hosted the Olympics. The Olympics significantly boosted sports marketing. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), this event turned athletics into a sponsored business. This became the first to be operational on revenues generated by private sponsor revenues. The other Olympics operated on a bid to generate profit.In addition to the competition that is experience on the field, sports teams also compete for favor from spectators, media coverage, brand sponsors, product consumers as well as bidding investors. From this perspective, this is making sporting action become a business entity. This is with professional management. Those in management will rather perceive those in their sport team as a brand and are important to sell in the sport club. Thus, the sports icons are rather making sure every sports event is a value addition. This makes them important in the public eye. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), these makes them become valuable and can attract and influence the perception and attitude of other stakeholders the game. Sports Clubs like Manchester United, Real Madrid as well as the New York Yankees have set pace in showing the value of product branding in games is all about? This act makes the sports seem rather to act independently when displayed. The venture is such that the brand can sell independently of the athlete success. Take for instance the case of Real Madrid. In the football season of 2003/2004, they made up to 64.3 million in the form of merchandising sales. Out of the revenue generated, the brand sold 1.5 million shirts mostly to other countries. The clubs at the helm of football action, mainly based in Europe collectively grew by a margin of 11%, which is equivalent to 3.7 billion in 2006/2007. During this time Real Madrid was rated as the first club to make up revenue of 360 million. Research has classified the art of sports marketing in to two versions. According to Goldman and Johns (2009), there is marketing of sports as well as marketing with sports. The marketing of sports involves marketing strategies of sports events as well as sports kits to a target audience of the players, athletes as w

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Understanding Young Adult Footwear Shoppers in India

Understanding youthfulness Adult Footwear Shoppers in IndiaExecutive SummaryA universe can be judged by the office he wears. Footwear at pass is much much(prenominal) than just an constitutional quit of ones attire it helps the innovational day consumer make his or her unusual(p) lifestyle statement. This ruminate was with with(p) to squander the stairsstand the footgear preferences was dissimilar categories of footgear and to netherstand the footgear obtain behaviour. The objective of the study was to member young adult footwear shoppers into unique footwear shop druthers sort outs and to develop a profile for severally separate with respect to footwear benefits sought, importance of ancestry attributes, patronage way and demographics. To start with, a secondary research was done to gain a broad go outing of the footwear manu featureure in India, in occurrence footwear sell, and the modern Indian consumer. In-depth interviews of 10 young adults from metros, both males and females, were conducted to mystify forth at the parameters apply in the evaluation of footwear, footwear sell neckcloths and a worry to understand general footwear usage and leveraging behavior. This understanding and the parameters arrived at were then use in formulating a questionnaire consisting of 60 line items which was administered through online surveys. A summate of 100 responses were achieved of which 85 were get a great responses. The data of the complete responses was then analyzed through frequency distributions, factor analysis and clomp analysis. Factor analysis helped to reduce the number of variables to 8 factors. On the tail of these 8 factors, the 85 respondents were distinguishified into 3 clusters with unique shop orientations. The will of this study can be helpful to footwear retailers in customizing their merchandising, dis con, and former(a) store attributes kindred space and availability of mirrors to gain maximum store loyalty and patronage.IntroductionFootwear is much to a greater boundary than just an integral part of ones attire while on the one extreme, it helps the modern day consumer make his or her unique lifestyle statement, it a uniform helps enhances the mathematical process of athletes and frisksmen at the new(prenominal) extreme.A brief history of footwear unrivaled of the start-off things make by our primitive ancestors was foot c overing. It was primarily used to comfort themselves from burning sand, rocks and rugged terrain. Records show that distinct civilizations like Egyptian, Chinese and some new(prenominal) early civilizations, all contained reference to property. It is in any case mentioned in the Bible. The Hebrews overly used it in binding a bargain (Shoe History, 2009).The kickoff form of get dressed consisted of a simple piece of plaited grass or rawhide which was strapped to the feet. During early condemnations, sandals were the nigh common sheath of fo otwear. In Mesopotamia, during 1600 1200 BC, a particular quality of shoes were used. They were soft and made of wraparound welt.Up to almost 1850, the method of making shoes was the comparable as that in 14th century B.C. in Egypt. break tools were used. Shoes were absolutely straight. There was no difference between the skilful and left shoe (Shoe History, 2009).In 1845, the first shape that found a permanent place in the shoe manufacturing persistence was invented- the Rolling machine. In 1846, a sewing machine was invented. In 1875, a machine was certain which later came to be known the Good yr rebuke Sewing Machine (Shoe History, 2009). condom heels for shoes were patented in on January 24, 1895 by Humphrey OSullivan. These rubber heels on shoes outlasted the lash heels then in use (The History of Shoes, 2009).Keds were first mass- groceryed in 1917 (The History of Shoes, 2009). They were positioned as canvas- ply tennis shoes. These were officially the first sneak ers. The word sneaker was coined by Henry Nelson McKinney, an advertising agent. This was because the rubber sole made the shoe stealthy. All former(a) shoes, barring a few exceptions like moccasins, made noise when a person walked. Hence you could sneak on anyone clothing Keds.Since the middle-20th century, the type of shoes macrocosm created has changed considerably comp bed to the traditional crafting techniques. This is due to advances in b hold backables, rubber, synthetic cloth, plastics and industrial adhesives. Leather, even though is hitherto used in expensive dress shoes is no longer really used in athletic shoes. Soles, which were once hand stitched, atomic number 18 now machine stitched or simply glued on.A century ago, if a lot of effort was put in, a person might pass on been able to produce a few pairs of shoes. Today, willing Toe Laster for Good year Welt shoes can produce 1200 pairs in an 8-hour day (Shoe History, 2009).Footwear industry in IndiaIndustry overviewThe Indian footwear and trounce industry is amongst the top-10 inappropriate exchange earners. It is also amongst the top-12 focus manufacturing orbits in the country if we consider it in scathe of competitiveness and untapped potential.The worlds largest footwear manufacturer is China. Next is India. India producs 16 billion pairs noticeing for 13% of global footwear production. India produces 2065 one million million million pairs of different categories of footwear (leather shoe uppers 100 million pairs, non-leather footwear 1056 million pairs and leather footwear 909 million pairs). India exports just 115 million pairs of footwear. Almost 95% of the production goes into meeting the domestic demand.Nearly 15 percent of Europes spark advance mugs outsource their footwear, app bel and fashion accessories purchases from India. Indias domestic footwear foodstuff is off exterminate than former(a)s around the world primarily because of abundant raw materials, low hail of production and a huge consumption market.Indias major importers for Indian leather productsCountrySh atomic number 18 (%)Germany14.12Italy12.82UK11.48USA9.98Hong Kong6.61Spain6.09France6.14Netherlands4.13UAE2.38Australia1.55Total75.30The 10 countries mentioned above narration for close to 75.30% of Indias total leather products export.More than half of the Indian footwear market comprises of gents footwear. This is contrary to the world replete(p) trend. The worlds major production is in ladies footwear. Hence, in India there is immense scope in the womens segment. In the nonunionized sector, more than than 80 percent of the gross revenue happen in the mens segment. entirely this is might change soon.The footwear industry is extremely labor intensive- 90% of its production comes from SMEs (small and medium enterprises). There are in excess of 42,000 much(prenominal) SME units, there are primarily concentrated in two provinces in Uttar Pradesh up north and in Tamil N adu down south. They are also put forward in Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Punjab. Agra, Ranipet, Kanpur, Ambur, Jodhpur and Kolhapur are also traditionally illustrious centers of excellence in the production of leather and footwear.In the last pentad years, footwear production in the country has ontogenesisd by close to 60%. Out of this, the inelegant areas consume 75% of the footwear production. It has arrive a necessity product there since till now, they experience been majorly strip of its usage.The Footwear sector has now been de-licensed and de-reserved. This has paved the way for expansion of capacities on modern lines using state-of-the-art machinery. In order to assist this mathematical process further, the Government has permitted 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) through automatic route for footwear sector. Categorization or course of actionification of footwearThe Indian footwear market, in terms of quality offerings, has four main segments1. The crack premi um end- comprises the best of global luxury carrys2. The high-end or premium3. The mid/ preservation ranges- comprises of formals, functional, casuals and party wear4. The low-priced mass range- includes leather and plastic strapped slippers, as utility wearaside from this, the genuine active activewear segment with different price ranges also exists.The volume share of the economy/mid range has reduced. It was 61% in 2006-07. It has come down to 53%. The active sports-wear segment has increased its share from 7% to 9.6%. Premium leather and premium non-leather segments digest both seen a rise from 7% and 3% in 2006-07 to 7.3% and 3.5% respectively in 2007-08. The super premium luxury segment has a 0.08% market share. In terms of sales jimmy, this is a real significant number.Also there are four major categories of footwear1. Sports footwear2. Semi-formal or casual footwear3. Formalwear4. value footwearThe Indian footwear market mainly consists of casual wear. It occupies nea rly two-thirds of the total footwear retail market. The former(a) sub-segment that is doing well is the brand activewear segment. It is estimated to be close to Rs. 1,000 crore. The main players in this space consist of reebok, Adidas and Lotto. Compared to other segments, this segment is growing fast in terms of the number of outlets. Apart from footwear, these outlets also sell garment.Major players in Indian footwear industryThe top domestic and premium brands in India consist of1. Action It has a pan Indian presence. It consists of ninefold branded outlets (MBOs), 135 liquid ecstasy branded outlets (EBOs). It commands a total of 175,000 comforting feet retail space.2. Bata It is a household conjure up in India. It was the brand that made branded footwear popular. Bata India Limited manufactures and markets heterogeneous types of footwear, leather and footwear components. Apart from these, the company markets products related to footwear, garments, accessories, sports goods and other merchandise. Batas sub-brands consist of Dr Scholls, Hush puppies, Bubblegummer and Power. Till the first quarter of 2009, Bata India had 1,293 outlets. Bata India is soon feeling to affect out towards course I Tier II cities.3. Khadims Currently, it has over 329 outlets. The area under it is approximately 148,000 square feet retail space. It is sit in 22 cities crosswise India.4. Liberty After Bata, it is arguably the most popular domestic brand. It is the wholly Indian company among the worlds top 5 leather footwear manufacturers. It has EBOs as Revolutions and Liberty. Revolutions provides footwear, travel accessories, watches, leather accessories, sun-glasses and jewellery Its sub-brands consist of Footfun, Force 10, Senorita, Gliders, Tiptopp, Windsor, Coolers, June, Warrior and Perfect. Liberty has 360 EBOs, 40 Shop-in-shops and 150 distributors. It services 6000 MBOs. The total retail space under it is 1.26 million square feet.5. Metro, Mochi These are two brands from Metro Shoes Ltd. They were launched in 1977 and 2000 respectively. It consists of over 85 EBOs and 76 MBOs. The retail space under it is 131,000 square feet. It is present in 32 cities.6. Pavers England It stated in India in early 2008. It was launched in Reliance stores. It is a Chennai based brand. It operates 40 MBOs.7. Red Tape This brand belongs to Mirza International. It was launched in 1996 in the domestic market. It started its exclusive retail trading operations in 2006. By end-2008 it had 10 company-owned EBOs, 50 franchise-owned EBOs and also 135 Shops-in-shops.8. Sreeleathers It was established in 1950. It is a very strong brand in eastbounden India. It has 5 company-owned EBOs and 28 franchise-owned EBOs.9. Woodland It is looking to enter the junior and kidswear segment. It is also looking at apparels handicraft very optimistically. It hopes that this business will contribute to half of its total sales in India. It operates 250 EBOs in India.1 0. Lilliput It is a leading brand in kids footwear. By the end of 2008, it had 250 EBOs and also 100 shop-in shops.11. MB Footwear It has 2 in-house brands, viz ID and Mercell. It has been operating for more than 21 years. It has tie-ups with brands like lee side Cooper. By the end of 2008, it had 32 EBOs and also 11 shop-in-shops.International brands in India1. Adidas It is one of the biggest companies in the sports goods category. This nramd has acquired Reebok. It now consists of 3 brand divisions Adidas, Taylormade-Adidas golf and Reebok. Adidas brand focuses on sports. It offers footwear, apparel and hardware in three divisions which include sport heritage, sport performance, and sport style.The sport performance division focuses on the hardcore sports player.The sport heritage division focuses on the casual sports man.The sport style division focuses the fashion- intended consumers.The Reebok brand focuses more on style.Adidas entered India in 1977. It operates more than 450 EBOs. It has 340,000 square feet retail space. It claims a 20% market share in the active sports segment.2. Lotto It currently has 10 flagship EBOs in India. It has plans to increase it to 100 by the end of 2010. It is present in 30 Indian cities.3. Nike It has 107 EBOs in India4. Guess (Premium) It was launched in 2005 by Planet retail in India. It operates 19 EBOs and one shop-in-shop.5. Carlton London (Premium) It currently operates 10 EBOs. It has 50,000 square feet retail space in India. It is concentrated in conglutination India. It has plans to open up new stores in metros and in Tier I cities.MBO sellers1. Planet Sports It has 39 outlets and a retail space of 73,000 square feet. It is present in 21 cities across India.2. Provogue It was launched in 2005. It consists of 55 EBOs and also 15 shop-in-shops.3. Reliance Footprints It is a division of Reliance sell Ltd. It started its operations in 2007. It currently operates 14 MBOs. It offers global brands like Ecc o, Geox, Josef Siebel, Rockport, Florsheim, Hush Puppies, Lee Cooper and Clarks, Piccadilly, Dr. Scholls, Levis, Crocs, Disney among others. Apart from these, it sells handbags as well as accessories.4. Shoe grind It is a value format. It offers huge variety of footwear for a wide age groups. It started its operations in Ahmedabad in 2006. It is present in 16 locations and has a retails space of 48,000 square feet across 8 cities.5. The Blues It is an exclusive licensee of major global brands like Corneliani (2006), Versace Collection (2005), VJC Versace Jeans Couture (2008), Cadini (2005), Versace (2008). By the end of 2008, it had 6 franchised EBOs, 3 shop-in-shops and also one MBO.Emergence of modern Indian retailIntroductionIn 2007, the Indian retail sector stood at $350 billion. It was predicted to increase to $427 billion by 2010 and $635 billion by 2015 (Morierty, 2007).Many Indian business houses are entering or have already entered this sector. The food and grocery stor e sector is turning out to be a major contributer to this guinea pig. however though it started slowly, it is now growing at a feverish pace.The other forms of retail have also evolved consistently. With the huge business houses entering into this business, the field has conk extremely competitive between them. This is one sector that is looking to explode in the near culmination(prenominal).Today, mega Indian business houses and corporate like the Future Group of Kishore Biyani (Food Bazaar), Reliance Group of Mukesh Ambani (Reliance unclouded Reliance Hyper), ITC Ltd (Choupal Fresh Choupal Saagar), Wadhawan Holdings (Spinach), RPG Group (Spencers Retail), the Aditya Birla Group (More), Subhiksha, the Godrej group (Natures Basket Godrej Aadhar), J Raheja group (Hypercity), etcetera are driving the forays into retail through different models like single-format, multi-format or integrated urban-rural model. (Sengupta, 2007)However, the development of the Indian retail space has been a long and ardous journey. Let us have a brief look at how the sector as a whole has evolved over the years.HistoryIt is popularly assumed that with the opening of the Indian economy in the early 1990s, the retail sector started opening up. This is when all the supermarkets and hypermarkets came into existence. However, the types of retail formats have existed in India since 1970s.In 1971, Nilgiris was set up in Bangalore. It was what one could popularly refer to as the face of modern Indian retail. It was a supermarket. Since then, a lot of other business houses/ entrepreneurs have entered this sector. A few went national while a majority of them were restricted to a local scale. Popular among them were Trinetra from Hyderabad (now part of the Aditya Birla Group), Foodworld from Chennai, shore Free from Kerala among others. A few others like Stop Shop from the TVS group in South India and Nanz in North India have shut down.In 1947, when India got independence, the per c apita income was very low. People could not really afford any type of luxuries. Majority of them managed to live by getting their basic necessities. The main type of retail format prominent during those days was the mom-and-pop (kirana stores). They were run by individuals. The other format was the Bazaar. This trend continued up to the 1960s. Even post that, when supermarkets like Nilgiris opened up, the trend continued (Sengupta, 2007).It was during the 1990s and 2000s that this trend gradually changed. The growth story of the modern retail format in India is the early part of this millennium can be divided into 4 phases.Phase 1This phase is characterised between 2002 and 2004. practically of new entrants into the market were driving the top line growth.Phase 2This phase is characterised between 2004 and 2006. The consumers were getting more and more aware of the possibilities that this retail growth could mean for them. They started demanding more and more variety in the organiz ed retail formats.Phase 3 daub 2006, the retailers realized that in order to distinguish themselves, they would have to strengthen their back-end activities. The front line end of almost all retail outlets were more or little the same. The thing that distinguished them from the rest were activities like inventory control, turnover time etc.Phase 4This phase has been in progress since 2007. The retail players are in the process of consolidating their operations.(Srivastava, 2009)Organized retail is moving from being a novel experiment to an judge back-end innovation and scale make water up (Srivastava, 2009). Indian retail storyFirst some facts (Srivastava, 2009)* The retail industry employs almost 21 million people* The Kearney study undertaken in 2006, ranked India 5th among 30 developing countries in the Global Retail Development index finger* The study projects that India will overtake Russia and China to capture the number one destination for foreign direct investment in r etailIndia has over 12 million retail outlets. Out of this, about 95% of the outlets are less than 500 square feet (Srivastava, 2009).If we compare Indian retail with other countries, we see that the number of traditional retail outlets is stable very huge.In 2005, US had about 15% traditional retail outlets and 85% organized retail outlets. India had 97% traditional outlets and however 3% organized retail outlets (Srivastava, 2009).(Srivastava, 2009)The organized retail in India is still at a very nascent stage. The opportunity for growth is enormous.Even though speciality stores in India are gaining prominence, almost 90% of all future(a) retail development is predicted to be malls. The Indian consumer wants everything in the same place.One more trend that is being seeing is the marriage of retail and entertainment. Lots of multiplexes are opening up at malls. In fact, this seems to be the future trend. Sand alone places might not attract the crowd that such mergers could. Als o, facilities like book stores, coffee shops, food courts etc. are being developed at these places.The major distinguishing factor of malls in India is that they have a mix of high-value items as well as mass branded items at the same place. In comparison, other countries have speciality malls. They either are of the high-value kind boutiques or the mass category.India has the highest shop slow-wittedness in the world. It has about 11 shops per 1000 people. This adds to one shop per 20-25 families (Srivastava, 2009). However in cities, this density is much higher.If we look at the money spent on various facilities, the urban-rural difference make outs very evident. About 33% of entertainment spends come from rural areas as opposed to 67% from urban areas. As opposed to this, when we conversation about more basic necessities like food, clothing and footwear, over 60% comes from rural areas.(Srivastava, 2009)If we look at the share of the various things that are change in the orga nized retail, we find that apparels and accessories is the maximum at 38%, footwear is at 9%, while others like mobile phones, books etc. are at 3% each (Srivastava, 2009).(Srivastava, 2009)Retail formatsBoth traditional as well regional retails constitute footwear retail market space. on with these, new players like The Loft and pulverization outlets also constitute this space. These are category killers. The Loft offers over 130 brands, all under the same roof. It has completely revolutionarized the industry. In Mumbai, The Loft store has an area of 18,000 sq feet and also offers other services to the customers enhancing their experience. Factory outlets have also changed the industry. Pantaloon Retails Brand Factory, Reliance Footprints, exclusive Retail of the Landmark Group, and The Loot, are all offering a multiple footwear brands.1) HypermarketThis format of stores has seen a huge growth in India. virtually of the stores in this format are making money. The costumers find it very palmy as they can get almost all their daily necessities like food, clothing, shoes, utensils, home appliances, durables etc. under one roof. It is like a one stop shop for all necessities.2) Departmental Store alike(p) to hypermarkets, these shops also offer all the requirements under one roof. The difference is that these outlets have a more luxurious setting. The Indian consumer likes the idea of shopping in a better way with entertainment, novelty, variety and an international setting, all under one roof.3) Single brand/ Stand Alone OutletAs the name suggests, these outlets consist of whole one brand. They are generally run by the brand itself or are run as franchisee. The consumers do not have much choice here in terms of the number of brands but, generally, most of the variety of items, even the rare ones, of the brand are present here.4) Multi-Branded OutletA huge variety of brands are present here. The consumer has a wide array of brands to choose from. The only bunkback of such outlets is that only the popular items of a brand are present here. So if a consumer has a very specific requirement, he/ she might not be able to find the item here.5) Factory OutletA factory outlet is a retail store where the manufacturer sells his brand flat to the customer. The store might have a warehouse attached to it. The biggest expediency of such stores is that there are no middle men. Hence the end customers get the brands at a very low cost. They are also called Best Saving Outlets.Footwear retailAT Kearneys eigth annual GRDI (Global Retail Development Index) in 2009 ranked the Indian retail sector as the most attractive emerging market for investment. Indian retail market is the fifth largest retail destination globally.In the footwear retail market, only 5.9 percent of Indias total retail market is organized. This comes to Rs. 13,300 billion. The total footwear retail market stands at Rs. 160 billion. Out of this, 48.4% of the footwear retail market is organized and is dominated by brands. The Indian Retail report of the year 2009 maps the growth of the organized retail since 2004. The findings indicate that compared to the other retail categories, footwear category has grown at a much faster pace. In 2004-05, only 25% of the footwear retail sector was organized. In 2009, it grew to 48.4%. The general retail market share in the organized sector has only increased from 3% to 5.9% in the corresponding time frame.Emerging trendsThe performance of the footwear market is forecasted to accelerate with an anticipated CAGR of 10.2% for the five-year period 2008-2013. This is expected to contain the market to a value of $5,791.4 million by the end of 2013. Comparatively, the Chinese market will increase with a CAGR of 8.3%. (Singh, 2009)The organized retail sector is also seeing many changes. This sector occupies about 5% of Indian retail market. Large format stores and branded retail stores are coming up. This trend was first seen in South India and now in North India, West India and East India in the next couple of years. The retail sector is also opening its operations in Tier II cities like Gurgaon, Noida, Kochi etc. A market research report Booming Retail Sector in India predicts that Indian organoized retail sector will reach US$ 50 billion by 2011. This study was carried out by RNCOS. The number of shopping malls is also set to increase between 2007 and 2015 by a CAGR of 18.9%.The Indian consumerOn the World Map, India is placed 5th in the list of consumer markets of the world. Improved communication systems and the depiction to popular international brands has brought about a huge difference in the cities. People have become more indulgent. They want to acquire more and have also become very ambitious.According to a McKinsey report, the size of the Indian consumer market is expected to grow 4 times by 2025. This report is aptly entitle The rise of Indian Consumer Market. The youth population in India i s huge. 33% are below 15 years of age. The consumer spending has increased as the disposable income among the youth has increased. The consumer spending in India has increased by 75% in the last 4 years. The share of wallet for products like footwear, clothes, transport, entertainment, education, medical services, trapping and renting etc. has increased significantly.In fact, the Indian middle class has also started consuming luxury goods like air-conditioners and cars. The Indian demographic profile is changing rapidly. The upper class is growing much quicker than the get class. The deprived class is shrinking. The middle class is expected to touch 28 million by 2010. One third of the total middle class population will be from the rural areas.Lifestyle category goods are expected to be the future. With the increasing number of working women and fashion conscious males, they will look for a better quality of life. The Nielsen Retail Index 2007 reveled that consumers are switching to branded products. Also due to impulse tainting by young consumers with disposable income, brands like Reebok and Adidas saw their semi-urban and rural sales increase by more than 70%.According to Kishore Biyani (Biyani, 2007), the typical Indian consumer can be classified as followsThe serving class consists of 55% of the population. This indicates that the retail outlets should target this group as well instead of mainly targeting the consumer class, which consists of only 14% of the population, as it currently does (Tripathi).Literature Review Indian footwear consumerThe basic understanding of fashion and change in consumer perceptions has presumption a huge boost to the footwear industry. There is more exposure for Indians due to global travel and media penetration. The new retailing formats and distribution systems have capitalized on this. Branded footwear from overseas has become popular. Of course, the cost for the consumer is still a concern, due to which even the inter national brands have had to bring down their prices drastically in order to achieve break-even sales.Comfort is very crucial for the Indian footwear consumer. The branded and organized sector has taken gain of this. However, the awareness about more specialized products like performance enhancing and physical fitness assisting is still very low in India compared to other South East Asian countries. This could increase with time. Also, the young working population is seeing a shift in preference to international trends and lifestyles.One more fact is that women buyers buy more frequently compared to their male counterparts. About 29% women go shopping at least once every quarter. Men account for about 19% of the total purchases of that segment (Indian Retail Report, 2009).As per a study on how consumers divide their wallet spends, about 44% of the urban Nupscale (short for Nielsen Upscale, based on the usage of 12 consumer durable products by the consumers households) buy mens foo twear. 41% buy womens footwear. The average annual spend on the products is Rs. 2318 and Rs. 1336 respectively. This study was conducted by Images- AC Neilsen.Women had a role to play in the purchase of mens footwear (26% women to 56% men). Men had a bigger role to play in purchase of womens footwear (34% males to 51% females). Men spent more lavishly on footwear irrespective of whether they were buying for themselves or others or gifting. Males spend on an average Rs 2,459 in a typical year on purchase of mens footwear and Rs 1,428 on purchase of womens footwear. Comparatively, women spend on an average Rs 1,875 on mens footwear and Rs 1,265 on womens footwear in a typical year (Indian Retail Report, 2009).Research articlesShopping taste in the Evolving Indian Market, a research article by Piyush Kumar Sinha, attempted to understand shoppers from their disposition towards shopping. This was very useful because it has been noted that the differences between retailers are not really significant in terms of the value they deliver. The study managed to bring out the shopping orientation of the Indian shoppers. It said that emotional value matters more than the functional value while shopping. They are also more oriented towards the entertainment value. Based on this orientation, 300 shoppers were divided into 2 segments Fun shoppers and Work shoppers. These two segments had different demographic and behavioral profile. This orientation was primarily affected by the frequency of buying, type of store, and to some extent by the SEC (socio-economic classification). These findings were finally used in order to draw implications for store format, merchandising and pricing (Sinha, 2003).A Typology of raiment Shopping Orientation Segments among Female Consumers, segmented female apparel shoppers into unique apparel shopping orientation groups. It then developed a profile for each segment by taking into consideration the information sources, lifestyle activities, impor tance of store attributes, demographics and patronage behavior. Then by using cluster analysis of apparel shopping orientation factors, three groups were identified1) Highly Involved Apparel Shopper2) Apathetic Apparel Shopper3) Convenience-Oriented Catalog ShopperThey were further compared through MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) and chi-square statistics. The results indicated that shopping orientations are a base for segmenting female apparel shoppers. These groups are unique in consumer buying characteristics.They include* 3 factors of information sources ( personal manner Publications, Store Fashion Service/Promotion and Mass Media)* 5 factors of importance of store attrib