Monday, September 30, 2019

Religious Differences in the Early New England Colonies Essay

New England Colonies were established by people who were exile because of their religious beliefs, Most were known as separist. Most wanted to escapes and break free from the Anglican Church which was also known as the Church of England. They wanted the freedom to worship God in their own way. Yet, they however did not want to extend the freedom to everyone. Those who wanted to â€Å"purify† the Church of England were known as the puritans. They believe the Church of England was too similar to the Catholics in structure and ceremony. The puritans specially were intolerant to those who did not believe in their beliefs. The puritans were known as the non separists, the separists were people who wanted to completely break free from the Church of England. Also there was a group called the Antinomians in which Anne Hutchinson and her supporters opposed to the rule of law. The Quakers whom believed that they did not need to learn from ministry, since one person’s interpretation of the scripture was as valid as anyone else’s. It was religions such as these and others that caused different people to break free and go to different parts of the New World so that they can be free to practice their beliefs, In the new world most were able to practice their own beliefs while yet some were exiled, driven out, or accepted into their colonies. Regardless of which, religion was the common factor for people leaving the old world and forming New England Colonies in the New World.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Apple’s marketing relationship building with the target customers Essay

1. Introduction With the intensified competition and the rapid development of information technology, firms are facing unprecedented both opportunities and challenges in marketing. Marketing is a social platform to provide chances for individuals and groups to obtain what they need and want through exchanging various products with others (Kotler, 1974).In the contemporary society, people can not live without marketing with others which is much more important to firms. This report tends to evaluate how Apple-one of the most innovative and creative companies builds marketing relationships with its target customers through brand building. What is more, this report attaches much importance to customer profile which reveals some basic information about customers. This report is organized as follows. The first section is the introduction. The second part shows how Apple’s customer profile affects its brand building to have a closer marketing relationship with customers. The third one illustrates how Apple builds its brand and gradually builds the marketing relationship with customers through branding and customer profiles. From this part, it will be clearly clarified how Apple’s brand has amazing magic to attract so many fans. The last section is the conclusion. 2. Evaluation about customer profile of Apple According to Barron’s Marketing Dictionary, customer profile is the description of a customer group based on various demographic and psychographic characteristic. Apple collects customer profile through customers’ downloads in the app store. And these downloads are limited to Apple-buyers who have credentials. From these credentials, Apple can trace customers’ information thus finishing its profiles collecting. From Apple’s customer profile, it can be found that: ï  ¬Most Apple-users are young with professions and students take great part in the using of Apple products. A recent survey in 2008 based on the profile of iPhone users showed that most of the iPhone users are young and about 75% of iPhone users have used products of Apple before. (The Apple iPhone: successes and challenges for the mobile industry, 2008). It can be found from the picture below which shows the age distribution of iPhone users that most iPhone-users are beyond 40 years old and half of iPhone users are under the age of thirty. Figure2-1: The age distribution of iPhone-user Besides Apple’s customer profiles show that most of (79%) Apple-users are employed and 16% of Apple-users are students. In general, iPhone users tend to adopt progress of new technology. The research found that most iPhone-users are in the position of professional and scientific services, arts and the information and technology industry (The Apple iPhone: successes and challenges for the mobile industry, 2008). In addition, about 66% of households with Apple devices earn $60,000 or more in their income, compared with just over half of non-Apple users can earn that much (Apple profile report, 2008). In addition, from these two pictures below, it can be found that Apple users have obtained a higher educational level. From the Apple profile report 2008, it can be found that 68% have completed a 4-year university degree and even higher educational level like post-graduate degree or doctor degree. By comparison, only 45% of non-Apple households have reached this high educational level. It seems that Apple-users usually have higher educational level and higher incomes which help to afford them a higher disposable income, so that Apple’s high price not a barrier to them. (Apple profile report, 2008). In all, it can be concluded that Apple is favored by the economically elite. Figure 2-2: The working conditions of Apple-users Figure 2-3: The Educational level of Apple users Figure 2-4: The educational level of non-Apple users (Sources: The data comes from Apple profile report 2008) ï  ¬Apple-users take good advantage of internet. From the picture below, it can be found from the Apple profile report 2008 that 63% of Apple users spend more time using their computers to search the internet than watching TV. But only 57% of non-Apple users spend more time on computers than watching TV. While when comes to enjoying the fun on the internet, the difference between Apple users to non-Apple users is only slight. It has been found that there are almost 60% of Apple users keep discovering more ways to use the internet for fun and about 58% of the non-Apple users try to do that (The Apple iPhone: successes and challenges for the mobile industry, 2008). Since Apple-users are usually with higher level of education and most of them are employed, it is not strange that they take good advantage of internet and they also know better to use their devices for a better life. But Apple users still do not have better ideas to enjoy the fun of internet with their innovative devices. It could be a challenge for Apple to come up with new ways of enjoying the fun of internet with Apple devices. Figure 2-6: Comparison of Apple-users to non-Apple users on time-spending with computer and TV (Sources: The data comes from Apple profile report 2008 ) ï  ¬Apple-users are loyal to Apple’s products. What is more, it has been found that about Apple-users are loyal to products of Apple. From a survey on whether customers who use iPhone now have any other Apple devices, it has found that 49% of iPhone-users have used iPod previously. 20% of iPhone-users have used Mac and iPod and only 5% iPhone-users have once used Mac but no iPod. Only 26% of iPhone users do not use iPod or Mac before. So from the survey, it can be found that about 3 quarters who use iPhone today once have used Apple devices previously. These findings show that Apple-users are loyal to Apple’s various kinds of products and customers are quite satisfied with products of Apple. Figure 2-5: Did you own an iPod before you got your iPhone? To conclude, Apple with its various kinds of fantastic and innovative products such as iTunes, iPod, iPad, iPhone attract young people and turn them to be loyal customers of Apple. These customers who have high income or high educational level help to make the brand of Apple to have high status in the markets. And these customers’ love of Apple not only maintains brand loyalty of Apple but also attracts more and more customers get in love with Apple. 3. Analysis of how Apple builds marketing relationship with customers 3.1 Apple’s brand building with branding Brand has many advantages which companies can take to get closer to customers for more sales including improved perceptions of product performance, greater customer loyalty and increased marketing communication effectiveness (Keller, 2009).It is well acknowledged that brand has vital importance to a company even to a product or one kind of service. Especially in this fast-changing world, products are getting to be more similar because of the fierce competition which makes brand to be the difference between various products. Brands help to build sustained relationship with the customers. Strong brands lend endurance and performance to an organization and protect it from the market turbulence and uncertainties (Kapoor & Kulshrestha, 2011). In addition, brand gives customers a sense of reliance even makes them feel a better quality of life. Brands make meanings that become conventionally understood and shared across interpretive communities. (Holt, 2010, McCracken, 1996, and Kats, 2006 etc). The brand concept of Apple is â€Å"think different† which has last for over 30 years. From the creative and innovative products like iPod, iPad and iPhone, Apple always brings customers surprise and defines how to â€Å"think different†. In addition, Apple pursues to build a humanistic corporate culture with a strong corporate atmosphere to inspire employees to work voluntarily which can leave good impression on customers (Kahney, 2012). The famous global brand consultancy Interbrand which aims at creating and managing brand value released â€Å"2012 Best Global Brands† list, Apple jumps into the ranking 2 in the world, and the brand value growth is 129%. The brand of Apple has been a miracle in the global world. How dose the brand of Apple grow so quickly in the contemporary society? The following part will investigate this problem. The first step of is to get the customers’ attention. The advertisement of Apple has always maintained surprise which arouse the attention of customers. Since Steve Jobs returned Apple, the first release of iMac, either the video or the outdoor propaganda is featured with characteristic of Apple which makes the brand of Apple unique. Al Ries and Jack Trout pointed out in the book of 《The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing》in 1994 that if an enterprise can not be the â€Å"first† in the consumers’ choices in the industry, then the best way is to create a new category to attract consumers. And the â€Å"opposite Law† pointed that to occupy the minds of consumers as the â€Å"second† best choices; the brand communication strategy is not to try to go beyond the â€Å"first†, but to be different. In the early eighties, Apple is trying to compete with the industry leader-IBM and then rapidly gain the attention of consumers. Through the long advertising campaign, such as â€Å"1984†³and â€Å"Think different†, Apple has built the spirit of innovation and fearless which brings the concept of the brand. Later with the promotion of iPhone and iPad, the advertisement of Apple started to focus on elite people. The people who use Apple’s products in the advertisement are usually well educated and pursue a higher quality of life. Through these advertisements, the brand of Apple has been positioned as elite and high quality of life. With customers’ attention, they are interested in the product of Apple and have the desire to buy the product. The productions of Apple’s products are tools for those who are ambitious and passionate to change the world. To conclude, through segmenting the targeting markets, Apple finds its own position and its target or potential customers. Products like iPhone, iPad, iMac are innovative and fashion which are favored by those who have high income with professions or those who are pursuing fashions. To them, Apple’s products are unique and innovative. By meeting customers’ demands and satisfying their psychological needs, Apple has built its branding and gradually makes the brand meaningful and attractive, thus making the brand o f Apple world-famous. 3.2 Building marketing relationship with branding and customer profile Marketing relationship is a process including identifying target or potential customers, establishing relationship with them, maintaining these customers and finally enhancing relationships with them (Gronroos, 1997). And in order to build marketing relationship with customers, it is of great importance to know better about customer relationship management. Customer relationship marketing is to maintain brand loyalty and stimulate repeat and even more purchases of customers (Murdy & Pike, 2012). Kumar (2010) pointed out that customer relationship management is the strategic process of targeting the important customers and provide them with well-considered services to shape the relationship between a company and these customers. The goal of the marketing relationship of customers is to optimize the interest of the customers and satisfy their needs. What is more, Taleghani, Vhirani and Mirrashed have mentioned in 2011 that the strategy of relationship marketing is based on creating, developing and maintaining relationships with customers. Through the brand building, Apple gradually establishes marketing relationship with customers. Customers start to pay attention to products of Apple and they are quite satisfied with these products. And with the brand being more meaningful and inspiring, customers are impressed with positive brand images of Apple. Gradually the brand of Apple has been identical for customers which help Apple to build the first step of marketing relationship with customers. And the second step for marketing relationship building is achieved by collecting customer profiles. Apple takes advantage of its customer profile to find their target customers, and to maintain brand loyalty. Through the information of customer profile, Apple knows exactly who bought their products, when did they buy the product and how many times did they buy the products. Depending on customer profiles it collects from these downloads of customers, Apple get a better understanding of its customers and can use these information to satisfy customers’ needs, thus maintaining brand loyalty and providing warm services according to customers’ needs. In all, the customer profile of Apple provides the knowledge needed to posit its target and potential customers and enable Apple to focus on marketing and branding efforts more effectively which finally help Apple to build marketing relationship with its customers. Thirdly, despite the innovative and amazing products of Apple, it also provides customers with the delicate services which help to enhance marketing relationship with customers. It has been said that Apple has five stages of service including approach, probe, present, listen and end. â€Å"Do not be manipulated by the machine but to manipulate machine yourself† is Apple’s customer-oriented concept to produce new products. In 2007, one month before the iPhone is officially on sale, Jobs asked developers to switch the phone’s plastic screen to tempered glass screen. This has solved the problem of the screen be scratched by keys. In addition, the Voiceover helps the blind to read texts and ever enter information. Apple always stands on the side of customers and think for them. These warm services and Apple’s caring about customers help Apple maintains brand loyalty of customers. By the three steps of establishing the brand of Apple, maintaining the loyalty of customers and enhancing connection between customers, Apple builds the marketing relationship with customers. Although Apple’s marketing strategies has been quite effective which make the brand of Apple known all around the world. While there still exists some problems in Apple’s marketing. First of all, Apple’s marketing is too dependent on the leadership of Jobs Steve. He gives the brand of Apple the name of fashion, innovation and esthetics. Depending on his public influence, many of his followers choose to buy the products of Apple. With the left of Jobs, the brand of Apple may face some challenges. Secondly, the price of Apple is too high among its competitors. Although most Apple’s customers are of high income or well educated, the high price of Apple also make Apple lose some customers since some other products can satisfy their needs with fair prices. Last but not least, Apple has a big competitor-Samsung. As a latecomer to the mobile phone industry, Samsung has defeated Motorolaï ¼Å'Nokia and other competitors to become the world’s second largest mobile phone maker. The competition between Apple and Samsung will challenge the brand value of Apple. 4. Conclusion To conclude, brand is of vital importance to a firm or an organization. A strong brand offers reliance for customers and thus becomes a link to maintain customers’ loyalty. Branding helps to make products different and can choose the target customers. Through branding, Apple builds the brand which establishes the first step of marketing relationship with customers. By collecting customer profiles, Apple knows better about its customers which help Apple to maintain brand loyalty of target customers. In addition, through the delicate services and innovative products, Apple enhances the marketing relationship with customers. In all, Apple builds the marketing relationship by three steps including establishing the brand of Apple, maintaining the loyalty of customers and enhancing connection between customers. Although Apple has successfully built its brand and has good relationship with customers, Apple still faces many challenges including the left of its famous leader, the high price of its products and the strong competitors. Reference Gronroos, Christian. (1997) ‘From marketing mix to relationship marketing-towards a paradigm shift in marketing’, Management Decision, 35/4, 322-339. Holt, D.B. & Cameron, D. (2010) Cultural Strategy: Using Innovative Ideologies to Build Breakthrough Brands, Oxford University Press. Kahney, Leander. (2012) ‘Apple: It’s All About the Brand’. [Online] Available at: http://www.wired.com/gadgets/mac/commentary/cultofmac/2002/12/56677 (Accessed: July 29, 2013) Kapoor, Avinash. & Kulshrestha, Chinmaya. (2011) Branding and sustainable competitive advantage: Building virtual presence. The United States of American: Business Science Reference. Kelle, K., L. (2009) ‘Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment’, Journal of Marketing Communications, 15:2-3, 139-155. Kotler, P. (1974) ‘Marketing during periods of shortage’, Journal of Marketing, 38(3), 20-29. Kumar,V.(2010).Customer Relationship Management. Published in Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing. Murdy, S. & Pike, S. (2012) ‘Perceptions of visitor relationship marketing opportunities by destination marketers: An importance-performance analyses, Tourism management, Volume 33, Issue 5. Reed, Brad. (2013) Apple is still the world’s most valuable brand. [Online] Available at: http://bgr.com/2013/05/21/apple-brand-value-analysis/ (Accessed: July 29, 2013) Ries, Al. & Trout, Jack. (1994) The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing, Harper Business press. Taleghan, M., Chirani, Ebrahim. & Mirrashed, A. S. (2011) ‘A conceptuality approach to relationship marketing and customers loyalty to banks’, Journal of Applied Scientific Research, 1(11), pp2022-2025. Apple annual report 2008: Just how â€Å"different† and elite are Apple customers – socioeconomically, behaviorally, and attitudinally? (2008) Available at: http://technologyuser.com/2009/04/05/just-how-different-and-elite-are-apple-customers-socioeconomically-behaviorally-and-attitudinally/ (Accessed: July 29, 2013) The Apple iPhone: successes and challenges for the mobile industry (2008) Available at: http://www.nilofermerchant.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/iPhone-survey-whitepaper-v2.pdf (Accessed: July 29, 2013)

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Marble Slab Case Analysis

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Company: Marble Slab is a company that is famous for making fresh ice cream. It sells its premium prestige ice cream that is made daily with unique toppings. The unique thing about Marble Slab is the customers’ ability to completely customize their ice cream the way that they want to eat it. Instead of having a predetermined flavour, customers are able to mix their flavours of ice cream that they please and put a numerous amount of toppings on them that include Bananas, Strawberries, Bread crumbs etc. They call this Mixins. All of this is done on a giant ice cold marble slab.Marble Slab wishes to give customers a unique experience with a prestigious brand of ice cream. Marble Slab Creamery Inc. was founded in Houston, Texas in 1983. It was independently owned by franchisees across the United States until 2003 when Canadians were granted permission to have franchisees in Canada. In 2007, Marble Slab creamery Inc. was purchased by NexCen Brands Inc. Although Ne xCen owned Marble Slab they played a small role in the daily operations of their locations. Marble Slab has become one of the fastest growing quick serve restaurants with almost 400 locations worldwide.Product: Besides premium ice cream that is made daily, Marble Slab also sells sundaes, milkshakes, ice cream cakes, frozen yogurt and more. Since the ice cream is made fresh at the location it can last up to 30 days. Every location had an offering of 21 different flavours and an endless amount of mixins. And the prices of the products were the same across any of the locations. Price: The prices of Marble Slabs products vary from as low as $4. 95 for an ice cream cone with 1 mixin to a Slab cake for $54. 95 and everything in between.They do have things that are cheaper than the cone with 1 mixin such as brownies, apple pie slices, and even a charge for extra mixins, all of which are under $3. 00. Event catering for an event of at least 200 people will need 2 employees at a cost of $12 per hour, as well as the cost of supplies and the ice cream itself. Place: There are approximately 400 Marble Slab locations worldwide. With many locations in major Urban and Suburban areas throughout Canada and the United States With a potential location in Vaughn, Toronto Annex Area, the Beaches, or Oakville.Promotion: Potential promotional ads in the Toronto Star, Now Magazine Toronto, Pattison Outdoor and on 104. 5 Chum FM. CURRENT MARKET ENVIRONMENT MICRO ENVIRONMENT Industry: Trends: The biggest trend in the ice cream industry as of right now is that most consumers are switching over to a more premium and more expensive ice cream products. An example of this would be the Magnum bar that comes from chocolate imported from Belgium, which has become very popular because of their marketing campaign.Things such as TV Commercials and celebrity endorsements are the reasons for the success of that product. The popularity of impulse ice cream has been decreasing steadily since 2007. Th e reason for this is that people are becoming more health conscience and are not interested in that type of ice cream anymore. Organic ice creams are becoming very popular. People are interested in natural flavors with no artificial colours added. People like the act that these products are not genetically enhanced in any way because, as stated before, people are more health conscious.Chocolate, Vanilla, and Strawberry flavours are still the most popular flavours of ice cream. But this does not mean that consumers are not willing to try new flavours. New flavours are still being created because they are still successful. Competition: Direct: Cold Stone- Cold Stone is pretty much an exact replica of Marble Slab. They offer a premium ice cream with complete customization. They even prepare it on a frozen granite stone. Created over 20 years ago and with over 1,400 stores it is easily one of Marble Slabs direct competitor.Baskin Robins- Baskin Robins is the largest ice cream company in the world. In Canada it has the largest share-of-mind. They serve ice cream, milkshakes, cakes and other products. They are well known for their 31 original flavours and their ice cream is known to be of good quality. A Baskin Robins can be found anywhere from malls to stand alone buildings. It has a large amount of financial resources and is priced similarly to Marble Slab. Dairy Queen- Dairy Queen is mostly known for its famous â€Å"Blizzard† It also serves ice cream and milkshakes and cakes.But it also sells Hamburgers, Hotdogs, and Sandwiches. Dairy queen also has a similar mixins concept that Marble Slap has but at a cheaper price. They also target children with children friendly food options. Indirect: McDonalds- McDonalds is the biggest restaurant chain in the world. McDonalds has a food chain in over 120 countries. They are primarily known for selling Hamburgers and fries but also have ice cream. The most famous of their ice cream meals being the â€Å"McFlurryâ₠¬  Milkshake. McDonalds is a power house and is unstoppable when it comes to promotion of their products.They excel in quick serve food and are definitely the leaders in the food market. A positive for Marble Slab is the fact that McDonalds isn’t really popular for its ice cream products and does not have the share-of-mind for that product. Starbucks- Starbucks is known for selling their premium coffee and tea products. Another thing that they do well is sell a comfortable environment. It’s a good place for people to hang out and socialize with friends and family. However they do not have a very large menu and mainly specialize in customized drinks.They also have a niche market and do not cater to children. Convenience Stores- There is convenience and grocery stores everywhere that have access to ice cream. It’s quick and easy to get ice cream at these places and they also have almost every other food choice. They can also choose to discount prices on items. Th ey are good for bargains. Baskin Robins has the Market share of ice cream restaurants. What they and Marble Slab have in common is that they have the same target market. Marble Slab is more prestigious and expensive. It also has more of a sit down restaurant feel to it.What Marble Slab has done better in terms of its competition is: * Greater share-of-mind than McDonalds * Caters to a bigger demographic than Starbucks, and Dairy Queen * Selling an original product * Having an original mixins concept * Offering a unique experience with the food being prepared on a frozen marble slab What Marble Slab has done that is weaker than their competition is: * Not as popular as Baskin Robins or McDonalds * More Prestigious product means it will be more expensive * Don’t have the marketing power or financial resources as their competitionConsumer: | Families| Young Adults| Women| Demographic| -A Family with children who are under the age of 15| -Young Adults aged 15- 24| -Women aged 15- 50| Geographic| -Primarily in Urban and Suburban areas| -Primarily in Urban and Suburban areas| -Primarily in Urban and Suburban areas| Psychological| -Parents who are often engaged in family activities- Looking for good quality ice cream. | – People who have their own disposable income -PT, FT, or summer employment| -Health conscious-The primary food purchasers in the household. Do a lot of food decisions in and out of the house| Behavioural| -Those who enjoy ice cream as a treat and would go to Marble Slab to fulfill their need for ice cream| -Looking for social interaction-Impulsive-Limited family obligation| -Looking for some place fast and easy to get a snack -Impulsive| Suppliers & Marketing Intermediaries: They get their supply from dairy farmers. Dairy can be quite expensive in the off season. They get most of their fruits and vegetables from farms as well. Also products such as cheese get purchased from factories.All marble Slabs are individually owned so they all h ave their own means as to where they get their supply. It may vary slightly from location to location. Products from the factories and the farms get purchased then they will be supplied to each of the Marble Slabs. MACRO ENVIRONMENT Macro-environment factors are the major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organization’s decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the economic factors; demographics; legal, political and social conditions; technological changes; and natural forces.Technological: Technology is another aspect of the environment a firm should consider in developing strategic plans. Changing technology may affect the demand for a firm's products and services, its production processes, and raw materials. Technological changes may create new opportunities for the firm, or threaten the survival of a product, firm, or industry. Technological innovation continues to move at an increasingly rapid rate. The technol ogical aspects of Marble Slab include the technology utilized to create and produce frozen dessert products such as ice cream, frozen yogurt, and milkshakes.Additionally, a new technological trend can be found in companies Investing in ways to create the same sweet taste of frozen desserts, but with less saturated fats and processed sugars. Demographic: Socioeconomic characteristics of a population expressed statistically, such as age, sex, education level, income level, marital status, occupation, religion, birth rate, death rate, average size of a family, average age at marriage. A census is a collection of the demographic factors associated with every member of a population.Income level of the cities where Thomas is looking to start the business are highly populated and people have pretty high level of income. The age groups of young adults 15-24 are in the range of 2000-35,000. Economic: Economic factors refer to the character and direction of the economic system within which th e firm operates. Economic factors include the balance of payments, the state of the business cycle, the distribution of income within the population, and governmental monetary and fiscal policies. The impact of economic factors may also differ between industries.The economic downturn of 2008 is still a heavy factor in the minds of Canadian consumers. Although conditions have improved in the last few years, Canadians still show some amount of concern financially. This concern materializes into apprehension for luxury and treat items such as ice cream. This raises a slight risk for Marble Slab especially because of their super premium ingredient, and luxury status. Another economical macro environmental factor is the ice cream industry’s exponential influence from the wide fluctuation of dairy market prices.The price of commodities such as cocoa and sugar also vary depending on supply and demand. This plays a direct role in the amount spent on goods. Social/Cultural: The socioc ultural dimensions of the environment consist of customs, lifestyles, and values that characterize the society in which the firm operates. Socio-cultural components of the environment influence the ability of the firm to obtain resources, make its goods and services, and function within the society. Sociocultural factors include anything within the context of society that has the potential to affect an organization.Population demographics, rising educational levels, norms and values, and attitudes toward social responsibility are examples of sociocultural variables. One of the social aspects discussed in the Marble Slab case study is the rise of the â€Å"healthy-eating† trend. The increased rate of obesity in North America is one of the leading factors in the occurrence of this social trend. This poses a threat to Marble Slab because ice cream is a frozen dessert treat high in calories. This however is combated by Marble Slab’s addition of fat-free frozen yogurt.Ice c ream is considered to be a social event in our culture, and the fact that ice cream establishments offer a social environment is a leading factor in why the market holds so much potential for young adults and families with children. Political/legal: The political-legal dimension of the general environment also affects business activity. The philosophy of the political parties in power influences business practices. The legal environment serves to define what organizations can and cannot do at a particular point in time.One of those most important political factors in the assessment of the macro environmental factors of Marble Slab lies within the Harmonized Sales tax policy (HST) that has replaced the Provincial Sales Tax (PST) since July of 2010. The combination of the PST as well as the Goods and Services Tax (GST) indicates a slight raise in the overall cost of goods and services. This is an important political factor for a retail store like Marble Slab Creamery, because consumer s will find a noticeable increase of tax.This raises a slight risk they will be discouraged from visiting luxury or treat stores like an ice cream establishment. Natural environment: An identifiable element in the physical, cultural, demographic, economic, political, regulatory, or technological environment that affects the survival, operations, and growth of an organization. Winter Weather in Canada can affect the business. People try to ignore eating cold products in winter. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths: * Make Fresh Ice Cream Daily * High Quality Ingredients * Customizable Product 21 Flavour of Ice Cream * Fat Free * Greater share-of-mind than McDonalds * Caters to a bigger demographic than Starbucks, and Dairy Queen * Selling an original product * Having an original mixins concept * Offering a unique experience with the food being prepared on a frozen marble slab Weaknesses: * Not as popular as Baskin Robins or McDonalds * More Prestigious product means it will be more expensive * Do n’t have the marketing power or financial resources as their competition * Not as many locations as competition Not as many flavours as other places like Baskin Robins (32 Flavours) * Not too convenient or those who want fast ice cream * Lots of Substitutes in Market Opportunities: * Can start to sell their ice cream at Convenience and Grocery stores * Have a take home section, sort of like a drive through * Use Social Media to Advertise * Create more flavours * Increase number of locations * Expanding to other countries * Appealing to price sensitive customers Expand menu so that there are more products than just ice cream (Coffee or Hamburgers. Ex. Dairy Cream, McDonalds) * Focus on Catering because it can be a great asset if done well * Trent towards healthy eating gives fat-free yogurt sales a boost * Children see ice cream as a treat, and encourage parents to choose an ice cream establishment as a family activity * The lucrative young adults (15-24) market are inclined t o visit and ice cream establishment due to its social environment and low costThreats: * Recession * Other companies who want to become more involved with ice cream products * Brand Loyalty to other ice cream companies * Dominant Retailers can sell ice cream for a lot less * Intense competition from other frozen dessert chains and grocers * Indirect competition from convenience and grocery stores * The dairy industry has a wide fluctuation rate, which directly affects goods prices * Canadians are concerned about the dip in the American economy. Other competitors such as Baskin Robins and Cold Stones have the financial resources to generate strong promotion, and can keep their prices on par with Marble Slab * Other competitors have products similar to Marble Slab’s â€Å"mixins†, such as Dairy Queen’s â€Å"Blizzard† or McDonalds â€Å"McFlurry† * Other food establishments have the advantage of supplying their products through grocers Problem and Is sue Analysis The major issue is deciding the location, because all the expenses related to promotion and pricing decision depend on the location.Some locations have different financing and leasing whereas others have target market issue. Every single decision to be made depends on the location where Thomas would like to start the business. Marketing Objectives Marble Slabs Marketing objectives are: -To have a successful promotional plan for the grand opening of the store and meeting the revenue goal of $400,000 in the first year. -To have promotional costs of $10,000 for the grand opening. -To have a 20% ROI on our catering events every year. Marketing StrategiesLocation is defined as the major problem as every single thing related for operations depends on location. Looking over the census information for the locations, Oakville is the most suitable option, the reasons are as follows: – 1- Median household income is the highest for Oakville 2- There are considerable amount o f target market in Oakville 3- Located near the lake, could be considered as picnic spot 4- There is little direct competition Purchasing power is the most important, because if the consumer has low disposable income then they won’t have that curiosity to spend.Oakville has the highest median income. 13,245 young adults live in Oakville. Ample of target market are present in Oakville, Thomas should work on 80 20 rule, where 20% of consumer make 80% of the revenue. There is little direct competition; this gives Thomas to act as the market leader in Oakville. There is some indirect competition from the grocery stores but that won’t affect the sale to a major extent. Thomas has to introduce fat free ice cream, because most of the consumers are health conscious.To achieve the objectives Thomas has to try as hard as possible to stay on the budget. There are a lot of expenses that come with the opening of a business. She must concentrate her time and money on the proper adve rtisement. I think one of her best bets in that situation would be to have a commercial on 104. 5 Chum FM during driving time because I believe that that will reach the most people. Also if she is to go into catering I believe that the best option for her to use is the portable slab option. It caters to the most people and the whole Marble Slap experience to the customers

Friday, September 27, 2019

Toxicology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Toxicology - Essay Example He/she may have to identify and analyze evidence that are collected at the crime scene and symptoms that have been recorded by the crime scene investigation team. These evidences help in narrowing the investigation that is being conducted. Forensic toxicologists tend to ignore the legal outcome of an investigation and they give emphasis to the technological equipments and methods used for analyzing and acquiring of outcomes (McDavid 92). Forensic toxicology is conducted on several samples that are acquired from different individuals at the crime scene and the main task of the toxicologist is to determine the quantity of chemicals in the samples, kind of chemicals present and the impact of these chemicals. Sampling Forensic Toxicology is conducted on bodily fluids including urine, blood and other samples obtained from body, it is even conducted on body parts especially hair. Urine samples are mostly used in the case of testing individuals representing the field of sports and employees . It is one of the most commonly used sample in the case of criminal investigation and it is easy to extract from a subject who is alive. For example: employees as well as athletes’ urine samples may be tested for consumption of marijuana and this substance tends to remain active in human body for fourteen days from the day it was consumed. Tests results from urine samples can take approximately 8 hours of time before showing positive and negative results. Forensic Toxicology is even conducted on obtained blood samples. To conduct proper inspection of blood sample, a minimum of 10 cm3 of blood content is required (Biswas 47). A forensic toxicologist obtains important information from the blood sample, he may obtain a profile of the substance that has been consumed at and before the sample was obtained and blood samples are mostly used in order to identify the level of blood alcohol level. Blood alcohol levels are mostly checked in order to identify the amount of alcohol in th e sample provider’s blood at the time of incidences such as driving. A forensic toxicologist may use hair samples in order to identify the level of dosage of drugs consumed and the time period at which the drug was consumed. Consumed drugs tend to travel from blood streams to hair that is growing and the drugs may end up being stored in hair follicle which helps in determining and creating a timeline at which the drug was taken. An individual hair growth has been recorded at one to one and a half cm each month and the stored drugs in the follicle area may help in determining the date and time the drug was ingested. Organs of subjects as well as other bodily fluids are even used by forensic toxicologists especially while conducting autopsy. While conducting an autopsy, forensic toxicologists may use the contents of the gastric region and gastric fluids are mostly obtained from subjects that are no longer alive. This content can help in identifying liquid content or drug substa nces that may have been consumed by the deceased subject before dying. Ethical Issues in Forensic Toxicology Forensic toxicologists may face various ethical dilemmas; they may obtain different results from different set of samples. In the case of hair testing, hair testing cannot be recognized as a standard for detecting and analyzing drug content as a standard for the entire population as different set of hair can provide different results. The

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Financial Analysis of Barcelona Brasseries Case Study

The Financial Analysis of Barcelona Brasseries - Case Study Example In the case study, hedging, as suggested by the private banker, would make sense for Barcelona Brasseries S.L. The economic environment is characterized by floating interest rates all through, with low margins. Given the prevailing economic environment, hedging the interest rates may be beneficial. The prevailing interest rates are low, and the company’s investment yield is quite low. Since the company has recently obtained additional locations all through Barcelona, for 1,000,000 Euros holding mortgage loan(s) will, therefore, result in higher earnings. Such a rise in income is caused by the increased interest earnings. In the example provided, the interest rate –swap has been set into a three-month floating rate system. The three-month floaters stretch more than it can if invested in securities and there are no capped rates (Hollis 2011). The company’s performance will be better if the interest rates increase. Suppose the rates fall, the three-month floater wil l have a performance similar to that which was predicted. However, the low rate may be quite inconvenient. Deventer and Imai (2013, p.113) note that there are some dangers the family may have to take into account when implementing the hedging of interest rate risks. There is a need for constant and consistent rearrangement. For example, a hedge with an eight percent effective duration would be sufficient to hedge a balance sheet with 31-year mortgage loans. However, seven years later, the hedge diminishes ineffective duration and may need to be rearranged with more hedges as the earlier former hedges mature. In most cases, this rearrangement needs superior modeling methods. In summary, the hedging of interest rate risk and the application of derivatives are useful method Barcelona Brasseries Inc. may consider utilizing.  

Diversity Enhancement Programs at the Workplace Research Paper

Diversity Enhancement Programs at the Workplace - Research Paper Example The aim of this work is to look at some of the benefit programs used by organisation to enhance diversity at the workplace. The literature review looks at the evolution diversity and some of the benefit programs used by modern organisations to enhance diversity. This study gathered data through qualitative research method. Questionnaires collect information from staff and management. Qualitative research process will be supported by interpretive analysis approach. The research ascertains roles played by benefit programs in enhancing diversity. Results of this paper are necessary and fundamental to stakeholders in the modern dynamic work environment. Acknowledgement Table of Contents Employee Diversity Benefit Program Questionnaire 23 Introduction According to Rasmussen, 1996, p. 274, diversity is the mosaic of individuals who convey an assortment of settings, methods, perspectives, and ideals as resources to the teams and organisations with which they relate. There are many reasons f or the rise in diversity at the place of work. Among them is the influx of more immigrants, corporate strategic alliances, and search for skills across the globe, employing a diverse labour force because of deliberate action programs, and the growing globalization of businesses. ... Therefore, the management has to assess its benefit programs to maintain its bearing to their employees. As diversity evolves, organisations continue to focus on how they can make it a business case especially on how companies can effectively utilize diversity for competitive advantage. Diversity is getting acknowledgement as a resource capable of adding and contributing to the company’s profits. Diversity is rising almost as rapidly as the number of software sellers at an accounting conference (Talbot-Allen, 1995, p. 3) According to Clarke (1995, p. 13), it is imperative, therefore, for companies and businesses to take measures to encourage and promote diversity in the work setting. Managing diversity is a challenge as well as an opportunity for organisation’s management. It requires organisational amendments that foster a cultural background that appreciates divergences and optimizes the potential of all. A proactive focus to diversity breeds competitive advantage hen ce offering the organisation an opportunity. In an organisation, each segment discovers, describes, and organizes its understanding in distinctive ways (Fine, Johnson, & Ryan, 1990, p.306, 317). HR representatives are leading the culture change by developing a diversity dream to place the platform for successful diversity management. Training and sensitization on diversity should acknowledge that individuals are different and respond in different ways and hence management should endeavor to ease the friction. Diversity pertains learning from others, dignity and esteem for all, and developing workplace settings and procedures that foster learning and absorb the benefit of diverse viewpoints.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Origins of Shintoism and it's impact on pre-modern Japan Research Paper

Origins of Shintoism and it's impact on pre-modern Japan - Research Paper Example The followers of Shintoism are expected to follow four affirmations in their everyday lives and in their ways of thinking. These affirmations are to the family, cleanliness, nature worship and matsuri which pertains to fiests and festivals dedicated to the spirits "kami". Ancient Japan is well known for images of geishas, samurais and great battles better known as the Tokugawa period. However, Classical Japan, also known as the Heian era, is more peaceful in comparison. The capital of Japan moved to Heian-Kyo in 796, which translates to the â€Å"capital of peace and tranquility† which will later on be known as Kyoto. Emperors were strong during the early parts of this period and had a continuing relationship with China. (1) In 894, the communications between Japan and China ceased to non-existent and Chinese influence to the Japanese nation gravely declined. It is then that the nation truly developed its own culture and society. The Heian era is a period known for the manifes tation of great arts and music like â€Å"gagaku† which is an imperial court music and poetry. Gagaku was a tradition introduced by China which was then performed during special occasions. (2) The great influence of Shintoism will be seen through the unsparing ritual feasts which have started to take place in temples and have been recorded in various diaries and novels. During this period, Buddhism is also known to spread rapidly among the 1†Insei: abdicated sovereigns in the politics of late Heian Japan†. GC Hurst. 1976. 2†Institution, ritual, and ideology: The twenty-two shrine-temple multiplexes of Heian Japan†. AG Grapard. 1988 people, although it coexisted with Shintoism rather than cause conflicts. With was the slow but sure development of Japan's own concepts of independence from the Chinese influence. The power of the emperor continued to decline over time which eventually, despite the existence of an Emperor during this era, the position was m erely of a figurehead ruler without true power. The real power in this period lies with the Fujiwara clan, mostly due to the political haggling. Several problems have arisen during this period which brought about the eventual downfall and end of this era. (3) The effectiveness of the government declined and Taika reforms have failed. Taika reforms is a tax structure which gives heavy taxes to the farmers but none to the shrines and temples which were quite abundant. The income of the state as well as the public's welfare showed a very significant decrease. The dangers of the consequences of this state of the economy have brought on increasing public outrage. Landowners and nobles who have lost their powers alike have felt threatened enough to employ the services of protectors, giving rise to samurais, in order to protect themselves. Provincial governors have become, in general, corrupted and lazy. The welfare of the public was ignored and the aristocracy of the court became decadent and useless. Leading clans by this time were the Minamoto and the Taira families. By this time, even monasteries were maintaining their own military forces. One of the incidents that clearly elaborated this increasing power struggle occurred in 903. Tara-No-Masakado, who was the leader of the Kanto district decided to revolt against the government with his refusal to pay taxes. He established his own kingdom and threw out the nobles and kept the power to himself, although his claim to power to success was short-lived. Another bushi house

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Guardian of Every Other Right Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Guardian of Every Other Right - Essay Example Property ownership is a complex and a serious issue all over the world. In United States also, it is considered as a serious issue. There are few controversies on this issue from the beginning. From the beginning means that from the colonial rule to the present day, the ownership of land is though to be a controversial and contentious issue. The book deals with the subject very thoroughly and gives an overview of the laws, ideologies and politics involve in this issue. And also the political and economical change that occurs due to the land and property issue and how these changes affect the constitution and the thoughts behind the constitution. The write provided a clear and comprehensive view about the historical prospective of the property rights issue. How these property right issues were resolved in the colonial rule and also in the democratic issues. According to Ely, there is a link between the private property rights and the political scenario or the political autonomy, because these issues cannot be resolved without the help of government. Government must interfere with people and public to make their contracts and to put some conditions before the transfer of any property. The laws and private contracts were modified as the US society and politics became modernized and industrialized. The writer highlighted and explained the constitutional standing and laws over the property issues. The constitution does provide some rules and rights over the property owners. As US got industrialized, the laws and legal developments were made during 1990's. The writer focused his attention and gave his views about those property rights which were provided legally to the property owners. He discussed in detail about the judicial decisions and the important legislations that took place in 1990's regarding the property rights. The decisions that were taken by the legislators and the explanations which were further made on the same regard, all are discussed by the writer. The writer himself seems to have a lot of knowledge about the legislations and laws for property rights. The writer's knowledge and comprehension about the subject plays an important role in any book. Writer can explain and express his ideas in a better way if he/she holds a command over the subject. Ely tells about the legal developments and enhancements made during the last era over the property rights. Supreme Court paid special attention to the issue and tried to introduce some amendments in the law so that public can easily go through these cases. The main emphasis was to cut this process shorten so that the time and money of people could be saved. Due to Supreme Courts final decisions in some cases, people felt the need of some laws or amendments in the previous laws for the protection of property and also the property owners. This came under the Fifth Amendment. The important thing over here is that the role of Federal Authority was examined and public became curious that what the Federal Authority has to do with these laws and what is their stance over the issue. Their role was examined mainly in context of commerce clause and also the noticeable advancements made at the state level. The book gave a clear picture and a complete knowledge about the history and innovations in the property laws under the Constitution. The information is provided over

Monday, September 23, 2019

Community Policing and Anti-terrorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Community Policing and Anti-terrorism - Essay Example The essay will attempt to link some of these agencies with the police department, community policing strategies and antiterrorism efforts. (Abrams, 2003) Community policing attempts to foster partnerships solve problems and transform organizations. One cannot underestimate the potential that community policing represents in terms of preventing crime. This is because community policing embraces all the stakeholders involved in crime prevention and it is also instrumental in dealing with the after effects of crime. Proactive policing is an issue that has gained a lot of acceptance in current policing practice. Research conducted in the late nineties indicated that this practice has increased by a whooping thirty percent. One would assume that such figures ill only increase with the passage of time. However, after a dramatic event such as the September eleventh attacks, it the police department was under pressure to adopt more conventional policing strategies. However, ignoring community policing strategies in terrorism prevention will be the wrong way to go because of the following reasons. First of all, community policing is a proactive strategy. It places more emphasis on prevention rather than response to crimes already committed. Furthermore community policing allows citizens and government agencies to participate in crime prevention by collaborating with the police. ... It usually moves away from a hierarchycal structure because this will slow down decision making problems and it will also reducing accountable. Instead, community policing fosters horizontal integration. Here, members of the organization; even those located in the lowest levels are given the mandate to make their own decisions. Normally, specific officers are given a specific area in their community. Cultural and geographical differences between the officers and the community must not be too intense in order to facilitate cooperation between the two parties. By bringing law enforcement closer to the community, the police department is empowered in the process of crime prevention. There are four main steps involved in problem solving and these are as follows; Scanning Analysis Response Assessment In the scanning phase, police asses what are the likely problems facing the community. Afterwards, there is a need to examine what could be the possible causes of those problems hence the analysis stage. Thereafter, there is a need to come up with solutions to these underlying causes; this constitutes the response phase. Afterwards, police are supposed o examine how effective their strategies were in dealing with the problem. It should be noted that these steps can become a cycle because whenever the last step is completed, there will be a need to make some changes in all the other stages too. It should be noted that community policing is quite advantageous because it takes account of the fact that the police my have some inadequacies when dealing with crime. They may not be fully aware of all the issues affecting a community or they may not have the ability to make use of all the resources necessary in

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Proposal to avoid managerial derailment and failure Essay Example for Free

Proposal to avoid managerial derailment and failure Essay Southwest Airlines strict adherence to its mission to provide the highest quality of customer service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and company spirit is a key factor to the company’s success (About Southwest Airlines Co, 2013). The airlines ability to commit to employees to provide them with a stable work environment that ensures equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Southwest prides itself on allowing all within the company to be creativity and innovative to help improve the effectiveness of Southwest Airlines. The most important benefit, employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every Southwest Customer. Southwest uses an unorthodox leadership style created by Herb Kelleher. The basic idea is that the organization works like an upside down pyramid. The upper management is at the bottom and supports the front line employees, who are the experts. This strategy works for Southwest Airlines because management decisions are made by everyone in the organization, not just the head executives. The company’s emphasis on creativity and innovation bodes well for a company that stresses free will over structure and titles (About Southwest Airlines Co, 2013). While Southwest Airlines offers the bare minimum in flight options, it does meet and exceed customer expectations when it comes to service. They base their model on the motto, which states that if theyre happy, satisfied, dedicated, and energetic, theyll take real good care of the customers. When the customers are happy, they come back. And that makes the shareholders happy, (About Southwest Airlines Co, 2013). Southwest Airlines have managed to keep a happy medium between labor unions and contract employees by maintain a healthy relationship with its employees. It is an added benefit to offer employees longer hours with more than just competitive pay. Southwest has had the ability to succeed because of the vision to realize and obtain its goals in business. The focus on bare essentials for flight is the catalyst for its low cost business model. A low cost plane with short travel between major cities has equally allowed Southwest Airlines to focus on a specific type of consumer. The customer base for Southwest Airlines is largely the business class will take service or luxury when it comes to being efficient and cost effective. The ability to focus that theidea that customers, can be satisfied without having expensive options available for them, Southwest Airlines has successfully lured those consumers away from the bigger airlines. Combined with the influences of the internet, Southwest Airlines can continue to excel in the industry by bypassing travel agents and their fees ensuring to avoid any managerial derailments or failures. Reference About Southwest Airlines. (2011). Retrieved October 12, 2013, from Southwest Airlines: http://www.southwest.com/html/about-southwest/index.html

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Animal Intelligence and Evolution of the Human Mind

Animal Intelligence and Evolution of the Human Mind The human brain lacks conspicuous characteristics-such as relative or absolute size-that might account for humans superior intellect. Researchers have found some clues to humanitys aptitude on a smaller scale, such as more neurons in our brains outermost layer. Human intelligence may be best likened to an upgrade of the cognitive capacities of nonhuman primates rather than an exceptionally advanced form of cognition. Subtle refinements in brain architecture, rather than large-scale alterations, make us smarter than other animals. As far as we know, no dog can compose music, no dolphin can speak in rhymes, and no parrot can solve equations with two unknowns. Only humans can perform such intellectual feats, presumably because we are smarter than all other animal species-at least by our own definition of intelligence. Of course, intelligence must emerge from the workings of the three-pound mass of wetware packed inside our skulls. Thus, researchers have tried to identify unique features of the human brain that could account for our superior intellectual abilities. But, anatomically, the human brain is very similar to that of other primates because humans and chimpanzees share an ancestor that walked the earth less than seven million years ago. Accordingly, the human brain contains no highly conspicuous characteristics that might account for the species cleverness. For instance, scientists have failed to find a correlation between absolute or relative brain size and acumen among humans and other animal species. Neither have they been able to discern a parallel between wits and the size or existence of specific regions of the brain, excepting perhaps Brocas area, which governs speech in people. The lack of an obvious structural correlate to human intellect jibes with the idea that our intelligence may not be wholly unique: studies are revealing that chimps, among various other species, possess a diversity of humanlike social and cognitive skills. Nevertheless, researchers have found some microscopic clues to humanitys aptitude. We have more neurons in our brains cerebral cortex (its outermost layer) than other mammals do. The insulation around nerves in the human brain is also thicker than that of other species, enabling the nerves to conduct signals more rapidly. Such biological subtleties, along with behavioral ones, suggest that human intelligence is best likened to an upgrade of the cognitive capacities of nonhuman primates rather than an exceptionally advanced form of cognition. Smart Species Because animals cannot read or speak, their aptitude is difficult to discern, much less measure. Thus, comparative psychologists have invented behavior-based tests to assess birds and mammals abilities to learn and remember, to comprehend numbers and to solve practical problems. Animals of various stripes-but especially nonhuman primates-often earn high marks on such action-oriented IQ tests. During World War I, German psychologist Wolfgang Kà ¶hler, for example, showed that chimpanzees, when confronted with fruit hanging from a high ceiling, devised an ingenious way to get it: they stacked boxes to stand on to reach the fruit. They also constructed long sticks to reach food outside their enclosure. Researchers now know that great apes have a sophisticated understanding of tool use and construction. Psychologists have used such behavioral tests to illuminate similar cognitive feats in other mammals as well as in birds. Pigeons can discriminate between male and female faces and among paintings by different artists; they can also group pictures into categories such as trees, selecting those belonging to a category by pecking with their beaks, an action that often brings a food reward. Crows have intellectual capacities that are overturning conventional wisdom about the brain. Behavioral ecologists, on the other hand, prefer to judge animals on their street smarts-that is, their ability to solve problems relevant to survival in their natural habitats-rather than on their test-taking talents. In this view, intelligence is a cluster of capabilities that evolved in response to particular environments. Some scientists have further proposed that mental or behavioral flexibility, the ability to come up with novel solutions to problems, is another good measure of animal intellect. Among birds, green herons occasionally throw an object in the water to lure curious fish-a trick that, ornithologists have observed, has been reinvented by groups of these animals living in distant locales. Even fish display remarkable practical intelligence, such as the use of tools, in the wild. Cichlid fish, for instance, use leaves as baby carriages for their egg masses. Animals also can display humanlike social intelligence. Monkeys engage in deception, for example; dolphins have been known to care for another injured pod member (displaying empathy), and a whale or porpoise may recognize itself in the mirror. Even some fish exhibit subtle kinds of social skills. Behavioral ecologist Redouan Bshary of the University of Neuchà ¢tel in Switzerland and his colleagues described one such case in a 2006 paper. Bony fish such as the so-called cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) cooperate and remove parasites from the skin of other fish or feed on their mucus. Bsharys team found that bystander fish spent more time next to cleaners the bystanders had observed being cooperative than to other fish. Humans, the authors note, tend to notice altruistic behavior and are more willing to help do-gooders whom they have observed doing favors for others. Similarly, cleaner wrasses observe and evaluate the behavior of other finned ocean denizens and are more willing t o help fish that they have seen assisting third parties. From such studies, scientists have constructed evolutionary hierarchies of intelligence. Primates and cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) are considered the smartest mammals. Among primates, humans and apes are considered cleverer than monkeys, and monkeys more so than prosimians. Of the apes, chimpanzees and bonobos rank above gibbons, orangutans and gorillas. Dolphins and sperm whales are supposedly smarter than nonpredatory baleen whales such as blue whales. Among birds, scientists consider parrots, owls and corvids (crows and ravens) the brightest. Such a pecking order argues against the idea that intelligence evolved along a single path, culminating in human acumen. Instead intellect seems to have emerged independently in birds and mammals and also in cetaceans and primates. Heavy Thoughts? What about the brain might underlie these parallel paths to astuteness? One candidate is absolute brain size. Although many studies have linked brain mass with variations in human intelligence [see High- ­Aptitude Minds, by Christian Hoppe and Jelena Stojanovic], size does not always correlate with smarts in different species. For example, clever small animals such as parrots, ravens, rats and relatively diminutive apes have brains of modest proportions, whereas some large animals such as horses and cows with large brains are comparatively dim-witted. Brain bulk cannot account for human intelligence either: At eight to nine kilograms, sperm and killer whale brains far outweigh the 1.4 kilograms of neural tissue inside our heads. As heavy as five kilograms, elephant brains are also much chunkier than ours. Relative brain size-the ratio of brain to body mass-does not provide a satisfying explanation for interspecies differences in smarts either. Humans do compare favorably with many medium and large species: our brain makes up approximately 2 percent of our body weight, whereas the blue whales brain, for instance, is less than one 100th of a percent of its weight. But some tiny, not terribly bright animals such as shrews and squirrels win out in this measure. In general, small animals boast relatively large brains, and large animals harbor relatively small ones. Although absolute brain mass increases with body weight, brain mass as a proportion of body mass tends to decrease with rising body weight. Another cerebral yardstick that scientists have tried to tie to intelligence is the degree of encephalization, measured by the encephalization quotient (EQ). The EQ expresses the extent to which a species relative brain weight deviates from the average in its animal class, say, mammal, bird or amphibian. Here the human brain tops the list: it is seven to eight times larger than would be expected for a mammal of its weight. But EQ does not parallel intellect perfectly either: gibbons and some capuchin monkeys have higher EQs than the more intelligent chimpanzees do, and even a few pro ­sim ­ians-the earliest evolved primates alive today-have higher EQs than gorillas do. Or perhaps the size of the brains outermost layer, the cerebral cortex-the seat of many of our cognitive capacities-is the key. But it turns out that the dimensions of the cerebral cortex depend on those of the entire brain and that the size of the cortex constitutes no better arbiter of a superior mind. The same is true for the prefrontal cortex, the hub of reason and action planning. Although some brain researchers have claimed in the past that the human prefrontal cortex is exceptionally large, recent studies have shown that it is not. The size of this structure in hu ­mans is comparable to its size in other  ­primates and may even be relatively small as compared with its counterpart in elephants and cetaceans. The lack of a large-scale measure of the human brain that could explain our performance may reflect the idea that human intellect may not be totally inimitable. Apes, after all, understand cause and effect, make and use tools, produce and comprehend language, and lie to and imitate others. These primates may even possess a theory of mind-the ability to understand another animals mental state and use it to guide their own behavior. Whales, dolphins and even some birds boast some of these mental talents as well. Thus, adult humans may simply be more intuitive and facile with tools and language than other species are, as opposed to possessing unique cognitive skills. Networking Fittingly, researchers have found the best correlates for intelligence by looking at a much smaller scale. Brains consist of nerve cells, or neurons, and supporting cells called glia. The more neurons, the more extensive and more productive the neuronal networks can be-and those networks determine varied brain functions, including perception, memory, planning and thinking. Large brains do not automatically have more neurons; in fact, neuronal density generally decreases with increasing brain size because of the additional glial cells and blood vessels needed to support a big brain. Humans have 11.5 billion cortical neurons-more than any other mammal, because of the human brains high neuronal density. Humans have only about half a billion more cortical neurons than whales and elephants do, however-not enough to account for the significant cognitive differences between humans and these species. In addition, however, a brains information-processing capacity depends on how fast its nerves conduct electrical impulses. The most rapidly conducting nerves are swathed in sheaths of insulation called myelin. The thicker a nerves myelin sheath, the faster the neural impulses travel along that nerve. The myelinated nerves in the brains of whales and elephants are demonstrably thinner than they are in primates, suggesting that information travels faster in the human brain than it does in the brains of nonprimates. What is more, neuronal messages must travel longer distances in the relatively large brains of elephants and whales than they do in the more compact human brain. The resulting boost in information-processing speed may at least partly explain the disparity in aptitude between humans and other big-brained creatures. Among humans cerebral advantages, language may be the most obvious. Various animals can convey complex messages to other members of their species; they can communicate about objects that are not in sight and relay information about individuals and events. Chimpanzees, gorillas, dolphins and parrots can even understand and use human speech, gestures or symbols in constructions of up to about three words. But even after years of training, none of these creatures develops verbal skills more advanced than those of a three-year-old child. In humans, grammar and vocabulary all but explode at age three. This timing corresponds with the development of Brocas speech area in the left frontal lobe, which may be unique to humans. That is, scientists are unsure whether a direct precursor to this speech region exists in the nonhuman primate brain. The absence of an intricately wired language region in the brains of other species may explain why, of all animals, humans alone have a language that contains complex grammar. Researchers date the development of human grammar and syntax to between 80,000 and 100,000 years ago, which makes it a relatively recent evolutionary advance. It was also one that probably greatly enhanced human intellect.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Essay on Search for Identity in Amy Tans The Joy Luck Club

Search for Identity in Joy Luck Club      Ã‚   Each person reaches a point in their life when they begin to search for their own, unique identity. In her novel, Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan follows Jing Mei on her search for her Chinese identity – an identity long neglected.    Four Chinese mothers have migrated to America. Each hope for their daughter’s success and pray that they will not experience the hardships faced in China. One mother, Suyuan, imparts her knowledge on her daughter through stories. The American culture influences her daughter, Jing Mei, to such a degree that it is hard for Jing Mei to understand her mother's culture and life lessons. Yet it is not until Jing Mei realizes that the key to understanding who her mother was and who she is lies in understanding her mother's life.    Jing Mei spends her American life trying to pull away from her Chinese heritage, and therefore also ends up pulling away from her mother. Jing Mei does not understand the culture and does not feel it is necessary to her life. When she grows up it is not "fashionable" to be called by your Chinese name (Tan 26). She doesn't use, understand, or remember the Chinese expressions her mother did, claiming she "can never remember things [she] didn't understand in the first place" (Tan 6). Jing Mei "begs" her mother "to buy [her] a transistor radio", but her mother refuses when she remembers something from her past, asking her daughter "Why do you think you are missing something you never had?" (Tan 13) Instead of viewing the situation from her mother's Chinese-influenced side, Jing Mei takes the juvenile American approach and "sulks in silence for an hour" (Tan 13). By ignoring her mom and her mom's advice, Jing Mei is also ignoring... ...Jing Mei realizes the part of her that is Chinese is her family. She must embrace the memory of her dead mother to grasp that part of her identity.    Works Cited and Consulted: Gates, David. Critical Extract. Asian-American Women Writers. Ed. Harold Bloom. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1997. 83-4. Heung, Marina. "Daughter-Text/Mother-Text: Matrilineage in Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club." Feminist Studies (Fall 1993): 597-616. Huntley, E. D. Amy Tan: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood P, 1998. Shear, Walter. "Generational differences and the diaspora in The Joy Luck Club." Women Writers. 34.3 (Spring 1993): 193 Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Vintage Contemporaries. New York: A Division of Random House, Inc., 1991.. Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia. Reading Asian American Literature: From Necessity to Extravagance. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Lee Silverman Voice Treatment :: Health, Parkinson’s Disease

Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) is primary utilized as a voice treatment for individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and attempts to increase vocal loudness and improve vocal function (Ramig L, Sapir S, Fox C, and Countryman S, 2001) (Countryman S, Hoehn M, O’Brien C, Pawlas A, Ramig L, and Sapir S, 2001). There has also been success in utilizing this treatment protocol for patients with dysarthria associated with stroke, and traumatic brain injury as well as children who have cerebral palsy and Down syndrome (Spielman, J Ramig L Mahler L Halpern A Gavin W 2007, )R., Theodoros, D., & Cornwell, P. (January 01, 2008), Marchant, J., McAuliffe, M., & Huckabee, M.-L. (January 01, 2008. LSVT was conceived in 1987 and has been extensively studied around the world since then (Countryman et. Al). LSVT is a very unique form of voice therapy in that it focuses on several very simple tasks that are designed to maximize the client’s phonation and respiratory functions. (Countrymen et al.) Spielman et all2007 indicated that the standard course of treatment was an extensive treatment schedule of one hour a day, four days a week, for four consecutive weeks. The basis of the treatment regime boils down to overcoming the perception among clients with PD that there is nothing wrong with their speech, and than utilizing intensive sensorimotor training to help them to recognize and use increased effort and louder speech in their day-to-day communication. (Ramig, L. O., Fox, C., & Sapir, S. (January 01, 2004)) Most research studies to test the application and success of LSVT seem to follow the same basic research methodology. Clients with PD are recruited from local support groups, through newspaper advertisements or contact with specialists in other related medical fields. (Countryman et al 2001) (Ramig et al 2001). The normal testing method appears to be randomized control group studies with clients being separated into groups that either receive LSVT or do not receive any voice related therapy, or groups that receive more traditional and less intense forms of vocal or respiration therapy (Ramig et al 2004)(Ramig et al 2001) (Countrymen S. 2001) (Constantinescu, G., Theodoros, D., Russell, T., Ward, E., Wilson, S., & Wootton, R. (January 01, 2011). Control groups can further be broken down into age and gender categories. Initially the clients all have their sound pressure levels are measured to establish a baseline reference point.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues - Same-sex Marriage, Two Moms or Two Dads :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Two Moms or Two Dads    Over the pas couple of decades American society has undergone some vast changes. The concept of the family has been greatly altered. No longer is such emphasis put on the "traditional" family. A majority of children are being raised in single parent households. Single parent adoption rights have been granted. Now an entirely new sort of family is being disputed. Should gays and lesbians be granted the right to adopt a child? Today's view of gays and lesbians is drastically differen t than it was in the past. As more people "come out of the closet" gays and lesbians are becoming more socially accepted. They currently are battling for equality in a variety of areas. In Hawaii gays and lesbians can be granted marriage righ ts, which was a huge victory until DOMA was passed. The Defense of Marriage Act, otherwise known as DOMA, was a bill proposed by conservative Congressmen and Senator Bob Dole. Dole says, "DOMA defines marriage as between one man and one woman for a ll fede ral purposes (taxes, Social Security, veterans' benefits, etc.) and says that states don't have to pay attention to the Constitution if they don't want to recognize same-sex marriages that are legal in any other state" (Winters 1). President Bill Clinton, who openly expresses his opposition to same-sex marriages, signed the bill making it a law. Gays and lesbians continue to fight. Recently the fights have been centered on adoption. This new dilemma has created quite a stir in society.    It is estimated that the number of children being raised by gay or lesbian parents is between 2 and 6 million. It is extremely hard to get an accurate estimation due to the fact that many gays and lesbias are not open about their family structure. These people do not want to be surveyed for fear of losing their children. In a population where roughly 10% or 25 million people are reported to be homosexual the numbers of those raising children are outstanding (Collum 1).    There are three main ways that gays and lesbians are raising children and acquiring families without the courts becoming involved. The first way, which is also the most common way, is when heterosexual marriages dissolve after one parent apparentl y "comes out. Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues - Same-sex Marriage, Two Moms or Two Dads :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays Two Moms or Two Dads    Over the pas couple of decades American society has undergone some vast changes. The concept of the family has been greatly altered. No longer is such emphasis put on the "traditional" family. A majority of children are being raised in single parent households. Single parent adoption rights have been granted. Now an entirely new sort of family is being disputed. Should gays and lesbians be granted the right to adopt a child? Today's view of gays and lesbians is drastically differen t than it was in the past. As more people "come out of the closet" gays and lesbians are becoming more socially accepted. They currently are battling for equality in a variety of areas. In Hawaii gays and lesbians can be granted marriage righ ts, which was a huge victory until DOMA was passed. The Defense of Marriage Act, otherwise known as DOMA, was a bill proposed by conservative Congressmen and Senator Bob Dole. Dole says, "DOMA defines marriage as between one man and one woman for a ll fede ral purposes (taxes, Social Security, veterans' benefits, etc.) and says that states don't have to pay attention to the Constitution if they don't want to recognize same-sex marriages that are legal in any other state" (Winters 1). President Bill Clinton, who openly expresses his opposition to same-sex marriages, signed the bill making it a law. Gays and lesbians continue to fight. Recently the fights have been centered on adoption. This new dilemma has created quite a stir in society.    It is estimated that the number of children being raised by gay or lesbian parents is between 2 and 6 million. It is extremely hard to get an accurate estimation due to the fact that many gays and lesbias are not open about their family structure. These people do not want to be surveyed for fear of losing their children. In a population where roughly 10% or 25 million people are reported to be homosexual the numbers of those raising children are outstanding (Collum 1).    There are three main ways that gays and lesbians are raising children and acquiring families without the courts becoming involved. The first way, which is also the most common way, is when heterosexual marriages dissolve after one parent apparentl y "comes out.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Let’s Be Lefties For a Day

The discussion of the importance of understanding cultural, ethnic, and gender differences by managers and professionals in a business setting begins with defining the key terms. Diversity is defined as â€Å"real or perceived differences among people that affect their interactions and relationships â€Å"(Bell, 2007). According to Week 1 lecture (SOCS 350, 2013), cultural diversity is defined as: â€Å"the existence of a wide variety of cultures and subcultures represented within a community†. This is evident in most work settings across the world. So how do I understand the importance and differences brought to the table by all of the different individuals? In our textbook Diversity in Organizations, it talks about Taylor Cox and Stacy Blake’s research studies on understanding diversity in the workplace. Their studies and explanations have been used in many textbooks and news regarding diversity. They explain how effective management of diversity can benefit organizations in the area of cost, resource acquisition, marketing, creativity, problem solving, and system flexibility. I agree that diversity can bring so much to a workplace. A personal experience of mine occurred at the community hospital near my hometown. The hospital had a predominantly low-income, African American population that used the emergency room. I was a young Caucasian woman who quickly became charge nurse for the night shift. During busy times, which occurs quite often in emergency rooms, I would be yelled at and even called racist if a white person was called back to a room first. I was lucky enough to have the benefit of the mayor of the predominantly African American community work as a LPN in the emergency room with me. He was an older African American, well known throughout the community, and very well respected. I could send him out to talk to unhappy patients because they took better to him, probably due to having the same ethnic/cultural background. He then explained things again and for some reason it was most often taken better, and proved I was not being racist and these are the policies that I followed. In the workplace though, especially a hospital setting, it is extremely beneficial to have all cultural backgrounds employed. Every patient that comes in is not going to be of the same ethnic or cultural background as you and sometimes like in my example it is easier to relate to someone with the same ethnicity. It is a beneficial skill for employees to understand different cultures to communicate effectively. Cox and Blake also proposed that â€Å"an organization’s reputation for valuing all types of workers will also affect its ability to market to different types of consumers. Consumers who appreciate fair treatment for everyone will be more likely to patronize an organization known to value diversity and to treat all workers fairly†. I truly believe that is accurate, and is shown to be proven accurate at my hospital. In our example in class using the ball and sock experiment, I learned how diverse America is. People do things a little bit different, and that is what makes us a culturally diverse country. Just because you do something right-handed and I do it left-handed does not mean I am doing it wrong. I am left-handed, and yes I have become ambidextrous also because of the predominantly right-handed population. This just shows me that people are able to adapt to change, and not one certain way, color, gender, race, age is better than another. There are numerous benefits to valuing diversity, especially in a business setting. With each unique combination of gender, ethnic background, culture, and life experiences, each person brings different sets of strengths, skills, and approaches to problems. I believe all businesses can benefit from a diverse body of talent bringing fresh ideas, perspectives, and views to the workplace.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Nestle vs Dutchlady Essay

Nestle already exist in Malaysia market, now we would like to make an analysis about the Nestle product in Taman Koperasi Cuepacs ,Kajang Selangor, whether customer are satisfaction with Nestle product or customer prefer with other brand like Dutch Lady. From that, Nestle can make some improvement for their product line to expand their business strategy and fulfill the customer’s satisfaction. 1. OBJECTIVE: 1. To know how well known of Nestle product in Kajang Selangor. 2. To know why people choose Nestle product to compare it with Dutch lady Product 3. Chefs were asked to discuss their requirements. The results showed that consumers were saying ‘fresh is best’. However, the chefs’ view was slightly different in terms of: ‘My customers would like everything to be made from scratch (i. e. made from basic raw ingredients), but I don’t have the time and money to do this’. The research revealed that the market was divided into a number of segments. A segment is a part of an overall market made up of customers with similar characteristics. Chefs fitted into four main segments: The research showed a sizeable demand for Segment 3 – a target for Maggie ‘A Natural Choice’ products. Brand proposition – the research defined a proposition for developing the new brand. This new proposition was to create a product with more natural qualities for ‘chefs who aim to please’ who want their cooking to be as fresh tasting as possible. Natural qualities would be defined in terms of taste, smell, look and texture. Target market– Maggie ‘A Natural Choice’ target was to be ‘chefs who aim to please’. Their prime aim is to provide delicious, wholesome foods that customers enjoy. These chefs enjoy their work and have a pride in the satisfaction they give customers. They are not in business just to make money. Brand ambition – Maggi ‘A Natural Choice’ combines the goodness and taste of real ingredients with time and cost saving. http://businesscasestudies. co. uk/nestle/nutrition-health-wellness-new-product-development-at-nestle/market-research. html#ixzz1rRQlFtbi From the literature review above, previous research about the satisfaction about nestle’ brand which is Maggie. From this research, Maggie is a famous food for a long time ago, but now, people in UK said, the product had come to be seen as uninteresting and old fashioned due to its dehydrated format and flavor. From that, we can know, is that, customer are satisfied with the Nestle’ brand or not, if customer are no satisfied with the Nestle’ brand, Nestle need to make some improvement to their product in term of flavor or packaging. In this research, the researcher shows that, there have 4 segments, which is, a target for Maggie, Brand proposition, Target market and, Brand ambition. Questionnaire is a document that is used to guide what questions are to be asked respondents and in what order, sometimes lists the alternative responses that are acceptable. In addition , list of a research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes to collect the appropriate data, make data comparable and amenable to analysis, minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and to make questions engaging and varied. This is the right way to ask people outside to answer the questionnaire to be given to the respondents. The advantages of questionnaire * Cost effective Questionnaires are cost effective compared the research methods using interviews or data mining. The questionnaire could be distributed to a larger population over a shorter period of time. This is especially true for sample populations that cover a large geographic area. The questionnaires can be mailed or delivered electronically. Personal interviews take time and mistakes can be made during the analysis of the data due to individual interpretation. Questionnaires can be sent back anonymously and this will allow more respondents to reply.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Max Weber †Bureaucracy Essay

Describe the principles of organisation (sometimes known as the ‘classical organisations principles’) in a bureaucracy. What are the pros and cons of working in a bureaucracy? What was Max Weber’s contribution to the study of bureaucracy? At the beginning of the 20th Century, after the industrial revolution began, theories of classical management began to emerge. The industrial revolution was a massive turning point in history and the economic market was transformed for the better. The world average capita increased over tenfold (Maddison, Angus. The World Economy: Historical statistics, 2003). With the increase in the average income, there was an increase in jobs. The downside to this was that managers had a bigger workforce to deal with and were unsure how to train them and deal with them professionally and effectively. Henri Faylor was considered to be the founder of the classical school of organisation. In 1916, he constructed 14 principles or organisation that could be applied worldwide and in all workplaces. His 14 principles are as follows: 1: Division of labour- allocate tasks to specific workers, and then they know their job 2: Authority- Management are in charge and give orders 3: Discipline- employees listen to these orders 4: Unity of command- only one superior gives orders 5: Unity of direction- One manager, one plan 6: Subordination of Individual Interests to the general interests- Business comes first and foremost 7: Remuneration- Fair wage to all workers 8: Centralisation- the allocated decision makers 9: Scalar chain- communication goes through the chain of command 10: Order- allocated place for employees and materials 11: Equity- kindness and fairness from employer to staff 12: Stability of tenure of personnel- keep staff turnover to a low 13: Imitative- praise and reward employees who carry out tasks without being asked 14: Espirit de corps – keep team moral high Faylor, along with Max Weber studied management roles and believed they  found a revolutionary way in which managers should behave in the workplace, train and react towards their staff to increase productivity, therefore profits. Their theories and principles (though have been tweaked and slightly updated) have lasted the test of time and are still being used in many workplaces today. There are three assumptions based on the classical theory 1-The relationship between employees and management is defined by means of formal structured communication process, defined tasks, defined accountability, and formalised procedures and practices, defined tasks, defined accountability, and formalised procedures and practices to avoid any conflict in their relationship. 2-Workers have been treated as economic man who can be motivated by means of money only. 3-Workers have been considered as a product of means of production or as a cog in the wheel. (International Research Journal of Finance and E conomics-Issue 41, pg 61, 2010) The theories and principles of classic management play a major part in bureaucracy. The rules and guidelines of bureaucracy are very clear and can be identified easily. The higher up in the company you are, the more power and authority you have. The lower you are placed in the company; you will have little to no authority. The principles of bureaucracy are as follows 1- Hierarchy of authority: Managers sit at the top of the hierarchy. They give orders and commands and their subordinates must obey. 2-Unity of command: each member of staff deal with one superior and only one! They will deal with this superior for all reasons concerning work – tasks, problems etc 3-Task specialisation: workers with specialised knowledge will use this to carry out specialised tasks. 4-Responsibilities and job descriptions: Each employee follows their allocated job. They know what is exactly required from them at work. 5-Line and staff functions: Staff managers are there to serve the company and to help make it a success. Staff mangers are not there to carry out primary purposes. (DuBrin, Andrew, Essentials of management, pg257, 2009) Max Weber’s part in classical management is very much geared towards bureaucracy and believed its the most efficent way to organise a successful business. Weber felt that too many businesses were being ran on a personal level and that owners/managers should not treat their staff as friends, but  their attitude towards their subordinates should be strictly professional. Weber argued that a professional relationship would not only be beneficial to the buisness, but also to the staff. Staff would know their job role clearly and any promotions made would be given to members of staff based on their hard work ethic and not on their personality or personal relationship with the the employer. Weber outlined the charcteristics of bureaucracy as follows: 1-A continuous organisation of official functions are bound by rules. 2-Specialised – Staff know exactly what is expected of the. 3-A clearly defined hierachy of offices- Each official knows who to report to. 4-Rules – a re clear and all members of staff are made aware of them. 5-Impersonal- equality to all. No hatred or favourtism. 6-Free selection of appointed officials- officials are appointed through qualifications and not through bias or favour. 7-Full-time paid officials- the higher the hirearchy rank, the higher the pay. 8-Career officials- promotions is based only on merit and not by favour. 9-Private/public split – business and private life are completely seperate. 10-Discipline and control within the workplace. (www.HRMguide.com) Bureaucracy made modern civilisation possible (DuBrin, Andrew, Management essentials, 2012, pg265) Bureaucracy is severely required in large firms – without it there would not be structure and therefore the businesses would not run in an orderly manner, therefore would not thrive and expand. Without expanding businesses we would not have the privilidge of such advanced technologies, certain medicines and many other luxuries we all enjoy today. Labour is divided out in a bureaucracy, therfore all staff members know there job and what is exactly expected of them. If an employee is good at their job, it gives them confidence in what they’re doing, therefore makes them more at ease within their workplace. Rules and guidelines are explained to them from the outset, so discrepancies are generally kept to a minimum. As I outlined before, bureaucracy allows those within a workplace to be promoted on the basis of their skills and work ethic rather than being promoted because of their personality or  personal relationship with higher management. Weber highly advocated his principles, but he was also aware that it would not be without fault. He even pointed out a fault of bureaucracy himself – â€Å"Iron cageof control†. This refers to Weber’s feelings that when individuals work within a bureaucracy, they get â€Å"trapped in a system that is purely based on teleological effeiceny, rational calculation and control† (www.corwin.com) Weber’s views on bureacracy have also come under scrutiny from fellow sociologists. Argytis (1957) argued that people who follwed classical management theories were more likely to be unhappy and fail within the workplace. He felt that people working within a democracy are treated like children, they work to a short term perspective and have minimal control over their working lives – adults don’t respond well to being treated this way at work and therfore will not respond well towards the company/business. Another disadvantage of working in a democrac y is what is referred to as ‘Red Tape’. This refers to all the paperwork and procedures that is required when working in a demococracy. Weber’s views were that this negative impact was not meant to be included in his theories. When a bereacratic form has been implimented within a workplace, its very hard to remove, so therefore employers who wish to change the dynamics of their business and get away from a bureacratic form may find this a very lenghtly and costly process to do so. Generally, companies want their staff to use their time at work produtively and effectively – time is wasted in a bureaucracy as the chain of command is used, therefore employees speak to their senior, who then report to theirs and so forth. If an employee were able to go straight to the manager in charge, this would save time and money – profit in a company is crucial to keep it running. There are two main types of organisation structure. The flat structure and the tall structure. The flat structure represents organisations with few levels in the hierarchy which have a broad control span, as opposed to the tall structure which has more levels however more focused areas of control. There are many benefits of the flat structure. As there are fewer hierarchical levels there is less ‘administrative distance’ between grades which makes communication a lot easier. It also makes the organisation a  lot more personal without contradicting Weber’s principle of keeping professional relationships. Also, as the span of control is so vast it is vital to employ competent employees to ensure a smooth operational process, resulting in a better workforce and meeting business objectives. However the main disadvantage of this structure is perhaps the authoritarian structure itself. In order for this structure to function properly there must be a definite split between superiors and suborinates otherwise the authority levels are undermined. Group conflicts are more likely in a â€Å"them versus us† situation, and if a manager socialises with their staff they are merging the statuses of the groups. Communications between subordinates often become a problem, as there is no difference in authority between the grades. Then there is the tall structure, which many people often prefer because of the number of hierarcical levels. This gives more scope for promotion prospects which in turn generates a motivated workforce. Certain orginisations require this form of structure, one of the best examples being the military and its rank structure. It has many levels of authority, which is more effective when dealing with instant decisions and rapid adaptations ‘on the ground’. Other organisations like this are the fire service, police and hospitals. So both structures have pros and cons, and work well in different situations. Whichever structure may fit the organisation better it is plain to see that a bureaucracy benefits it more than it would disadvantage it. Being in a bureaucracy is better for the company, and the staff within it, resulting in a better managed and motivated workforce which is turn increases productivity and professionalism. Bibliography DuBrin, Andrew. Essentials of management, 2009. DuBrin, Andrew. Essentials of management, 2012. International Research Journal of finance and economics – issue 41, 2010 Maddison, Angus. The World Economy Historical statistics, 2003 www.corwin.com (visited site on 12/11/2012) www.HRM.guide.com (visited site on 12/11/2012 Word count including quotes and references-1722