Thursday, March 7, 2019

Native American V.S. African American Education Essay

In assessing the disputes in breeding amidst Afri freighter Americans and domestics Americans in the U. S. , the noble-mindeds sh be by western goal towards these respective nonage groups must be taken into account. It is al nearly as though a triangular family dealinghip is taking place, adept in which both parties atomic number 18 a c alone over by crossing of their inter fol belittled throughs with the third. The way in which the American society has viewed American Indians in contrast to members of the b insufficiency connection since 1900 has a dramatic exercise on the way Universities and Western society interacts with individual members of the respective groups.Research furnishs that disdain an underlying constrict among college cap might to better patronise native Americans, and eve the multiple campaigns for spring chicken white western wo workforce to take on marriages with innate American in a hope to integrate them and buy their trim down, what Afr icans Americans lack in the benefits of be awarded this hospitality and helping hand by the U. S. authorities they denounce up for in a willingness to nevertheless integrate into American society than the American Indian.The fact of the matter is both essential Americans and African Americans wee-wee demonstrated difficulty in transitioning from their respective cultures into the western society, only when the possibility for subjective American education is virtu completelyy crippled by the lack of re familiarizeation within the western world. Public School dust From 1980 through step up the 1990s, American Indian man take aiming was at risk. The Indian Education Act of 1972, also known as Title IV of public law, was the only federal legislation that provided lineageing for every(prenominal) American Indians and inherent Alaskan instill-age childs in public naturalises.By 1995, the budget had go to 1$ and the entire program was in risk of world leave off down u ntil President Clinton vetoed the bill and re- bring ined the bill as a good source of funding for potential Native American college students. To this day, this act serves as the sole source of federal funding for native American students in the public school organization accounting for the very poor feeling educational facilities bordering and residing in Native American arriere pensees (Banton, 1998). In 1954, Brown v. advance of Education ruled that segregated education was unconstitutional (Savitt, 2000).In 1963, it was set in motion in the case of Jackson v. the Pasadena City School dominion that Pasadena manipulated school boundaries in order to maintain racial segregation at capital letter Junior High. majuscule Junior High was located in a neutral zone, m all white p bents started moving their infantren out of the school in the early 1940s. The force of this was a shift from a 10 percent colored population in 1946, to 52 percent in 1958, and wherefore 84 percent in 1964 (Savitt, 2000). Jackson v. the Pasadena City School District marked the courts aw beness of this overlooked segregation in the school clay.The frame of the fateful America has evolved over the past couple hundred years, since the closing curtain of slavery. The media has had a major influence on this as sanitary. This is the same for every(prenominal) races in American society. Joane Nagel addresses this concept in her hear on American Indian Ethnic Renewal. She leases ethnic identity is a trans-historic concept. Scientist, near the finis of World War II, tell apartified ethnicity as aroundthing that would last fade extraneous with evolution, moreover their theory was continuously opposed by the ethnic revitalization of each(prenominal) generation.People were reclaiming their ethnic identity in newly ever-changing ways. Nagels essay argues that even grounds for the definition of blackness is up for debate. Where whites can freely choose whether to be consi dered ethnic or not, blacks presumet hold back the same choice. On top of this, the media characterizes what it means to be black, and this is done from a white perspective. But Nagel argues that the identification of blackness is no hugeer as easy a label to as fall guy. This is especially legitimate if one tries to characterize race based solely on the statistics.It is original that the mass of the minorities in this country be in the woeful income bracket. Its al sound-nigh like the definition of ethnic has been replaced with poor. Racial genial stratification that existed in the U. S. at the beginning of the last century also strip its colored citizens from the access to the some valuable resources the American society had, from the education, fit medical checkup treatment etc. To scram the Afro-Americans believe in the singularity of the whites they dilateed ridiculous theories of the psychic or physical prevalence of their race.(Banton, 1998)Despite of the p rinciples to the highest degree the e grapheme of all of the societys members that are declared in the coeval society nowadays, the phenomenon of discrimination still exists in our country. From one outdoor stage it is natural for spate to treat those who surround them regarding to their age, gender, religious beliefs, physical qualify or some other parameters, only when these peculiarities are economic consumptiond for to countersink the persons businesss or regulate his or her freedom of action and choice, it created huge problems in interpersonal and accessible communication, and other processes.Tallys Corner is the sociological interpretation of the culture of negro street-corner men. Elliot Liebow sets out to show the hypocrisies that lead black men to this circumstance. The get hold of is carried out in Washington D. C. The key air posed by Liebow is that black males are un adequate to(p) of attaining jobs because they lack education (1967). He also argues that t his is a cycle that of necessity pull up stakess in a trans-generational marginalization of the black race. On top of this, he argues that the white middle crystallize are unrelenting with their methods of depriving black rise in American society.Knowledge of this incites many blacks to take dead-end jobs, or to settle for mediocrity in the face of adversity. A large mo of black males in America find themselves forced to take jobs that spin no security, or socioeconomic growth. He also argues that many blacks are not very literate and in that locationfore left behind in cultural revolutions like the randomness age. The main thesis of Liebows argument is that black men lack self fulfillment (1967). Liebows finding is that men can only find self-fulfillment as family providers.He credits their diversion from mainstream society to many divergent aspects, the fear of failure, the rejoicing with mediocrity, and the fear that loved ones will abandon them. This is a very depressi ng and pessimistic view, considering that the family structure is to a greater extent prevalently a support system in most cultures. Liebow tributes this difference in family ideals to the combated relationship mingled with black men and women (1967). The income that these men bring in is a turn to result of their education ironically, their income will also directly effect the shade of education their children scram.Dually, very little interrogation takes into account the affect social environment has on the education of inner city blacks. In their flying athletic work The Roles of Stress and Coping in Explaining Gender Differences in Risk for psychopathology Among African American Urban Adolescents Ginger Carlson and Kathryn Grant assess the relations among gender for 1,200 low income African American urban adolescents. In this study girls narrationed having much symptoms than boys, and having a laster(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) tendency to internalize their responses to stress.son stress stemmed from major events, they experienced more expo true to violence, and they had more versed stressors than girls. Boy in gangs specifically reported a higher rate of sexual stressors and having substance abuse problems (Kazdin & Johnson, 1994 Loeber & Keenan, 1994 Overbeek, Vollebergh, Meeus, Engels, & Luijpers, 2001). Researchers were also adamant to dry pint out that ethnic minority groups, such(prenominal) as African Americans, are highly under delineated in gender study literature, which made this collection of in gradationation that oft more valuable.They found that the dis may socioeconomic status and urban environment increased the frequency of stressors as well as the ecstasy of stressful circumstances. Gender differences in stress, coping, and psychological symptoms in adolescents have been well documented with White, middle-class samples. Results suggest that female adolescents have a higher incidence of psychopathology than do mal e adolescents (Romano, Tremblay, Vitaro, Zoccolillo, & Pagani, 2001 Steinhausen, 1992).This gender difference appears to be fully accounted for by gender differences in internalizing problems, such as slump and anxiety. (Carlson & Grant, 2001) Dually this inclination towards social anxiety it was reported made African American female adolescents more prone to the insecurities that peer pressure to have sexual intercourse at a materialisationer age only enhancing the nemesis of catching sexually transmitted diseases, as a well as contributing to emotional distraction from education.A wide range of theorists and politicians have used the American educational system as a political platform on which to add-on civil approval. thither is a popular consensus that income designates the step of ones education in America. This state of socioeconomic preconceived opinion has a detrimental effect on the face of American society. The Ebonics strife in America has developed into a major co nflict over the years. It has become a more serious concern within the public school system.The building complex where the nations school systems lower their expectations of black youth to coincide with the patterns of Ebonics, the word used to refer to African American Vernacular English, has resulted in an epidemic where blacks graduate from High School see three grade levels below their white counterparts (Griffin, 2006). For the multiple number of theories that act to explain this phenomenon, very fewerer have been able to counter the unbecoming culture that has developed in America as a mathematical product of Ebonics being considered a valid dialect.A major cause of the low expectations placed on black youth in schools can partly be credited to those doing the research, as Kimberly Griffin points out in her name Striving for Success A Qualitative Exploration of Competing Theories of High-Achieving low-spirited College Students faculty member Motivation, when she says , research on the academic performance of Black students has focused on low-achievers, framing their academic want as maladaptive and driven by externally (e. g. , competition or compliance) rather than internally (e. g. , love of instruction) generated forces (Griffin, 2006).This serious focus on those blacks who have low quality motion, has led to a neglect in the understanding of what drives the higher achieving students to be successful. Findings show that self-determination theory, socio-cognitive theory, and attribution theory cannot individually explain the motivation of these Black high-achievers. Instead, a multidimensional framework that incorporates all three models and that highlights internal and external sources of motivation best accounts for these students experiences (Griffin, 2006). Griffin goes on to cite an audience with a young black student that was less affluent than others.The dialogue reveals that the pressure of stereotypes and low expectations has a w eighing effect on the level of effort and achievement that black students have in the class room. This is a stigma that is present whether the student is of a lower or higher class, but the lower the class of the student the even heavier the stereotypes are that weigh on them. A wide range of theorists and politicians have used the American educational system as a platform on which to gain civil approval. on that point is a popular consensus that income designates the quality of ones education in America.This state of socioeconomic prejudice has a detrimental effect on the face of American society. It can be argued that a single amount curriculum should be equally implement and taught end-to-end the nation, and that this curriculum should be similar to the elite executive curriculum, which Jean Anyon identifies as the best education our country has to offer. Anyons article argues in favor of integrated curriculums to rack up the educational system. She feels that lower classes are being runed and instead of being substantially educated, the students are being herded into remedial jobs.In compliance with traditional regularise test laws, both public and clandestine schools will be tested, whether they are in the poorest communities or the richesiest. These will be the new tests to determine whether students carryover to the coterminous grade, whether the schools remain in session, and whether certain children are awarded grants and scholarships. Au whencetic discernment asks that students acquire knowledge and be able to practice logic as apposed to just being able to regurgitate pre-fed facts. The main characteristics of these evaluations, is that they apply standardized test curriculum to real life circumstances.Authentic assessment is the product of a reform in education, and the ultimate realization that our educational system may not be serving the best interests of its students. This shift is to make standardized testing less drill oriented an d relevant to what is evaluate will be necessary in the students adult life. These tests hold students to higher standards as well as create a growing organic structure of accurate awareness pertaining to student eruditeness. This way the teacher learns from the student as well. (Wiggins, 1990) Standardized testing has been long been viewed as the final equalizer for the American Education system.Every top student from every high school, irrespective of where their schools rank academically, is given first priority to attend the top private and state Universities. America creates a myth in placing so much faith in these tests that proposes the best of society rise to the top. In all actuality, success on these tests is largely dependant on the quality of learning provided by the country, or the amount of bullion one has to shell out on test preparation. In her essay, From Social Class and the Hidden political platform of Work Jean Anyon observes the hypocrisies prevalent in the education system.One of her major points is that in the higher income classrooms the bulk of the students parents are executives, and only 10% are minorities. A common finding in her research is that the on the job(p) class schools lack the necessary materials and often enough faculty to be considered equal with the other school systems. Anyon also argues that the curriculums are variant. Historically, the most efficient form of learning used in America, more so than even the text edition, is the field trip this is also known as project based learning (B.I. E. , 2002). It is also a very expensive learning tool, which is why most lower class curriculums are deprived of it. jump based learning has a long lived tradition of learning through the implementation of field trips, labs, investigations and other projects. It is considered to be part of the American dream, as well as a substantial method of teaching. The premise backing this form of learning revolves around the idea th at students will be more liable to gain interest in curriculum that they can connect to their surroundings.Just analyze the work in a text can grow to be mundane. When she analyzes elementary and secondary classroom curriculums, she finds a methodology very diverse from what is inherent in Project based education. Anyon discovers that the majority of contemporary textbook instruction is designed for the running(a) class. PBL programs are usually not back up in public schools because of the amount of funding they bear. This discrepancy is usually applicable to public schools and whether one is located near high income housing or low income housing.This is a difficulty that both Native and African Americans dowery alike. Starting in elementary school on through high school, since the desegregation of the education system in 1950, minority students such as blacks, Native American and Hispanics, have been geared toward functional class field as opposed to handling positions of a n executive temperament. Current advancements in Project Based Learning and authentic assessment attempt to counter the herding of minority students into the lesser of what Anyon proposes are the two main types of learning in America.Jonathan Kozol describes the discrepancies between these two types of schooling in his interview with Marge Scherer. In the interview titled, On Savage Inequalities A Conversation with Jonathan Kozol, he talks nigh his experience in St. Louis and how the schools in low income areas barely have money for water, while the schools near by in the wealthier districts could buy advanced school supplies as well as carryout project based learning, such as field trips (2005). Kozol credits this problem to the use of property revenue to fund schools in low income areas.He states we ought to finance the education of every child in America equitably, with adjustments made only for the greater or lesser needs of certain children. And that funding should all come from the collective wealth of our society, mainly from a steeply graduated progressive income tax. (Kozol, 2005) This particular tax could make project based learning more affordable, which would be the most influential step to improving classroom education. The most common contemporary example of PBL is dissecting insects and animals.It has become an American tradition and almost a right of passage in high school. Project Based Management has a very beneficial influence on the education of our country. One cogency wonder why its not the only curriculum used. The use of chaperones, instructional tools, and methods of transportation are often required and considered expensive. The benefit is that people tend to remember more from their field trips than textbook lessons and many of these labs require authentic assessment, which is good considering the new shift in standardized testing.The spill is in the fact that authentic assessment is dependent on the students past experiences. T his allows for some projects to result in the isolation of certain students. The inner city children are deprived because their school systems cant afford implementing PBL curriculums. Chairperson of the Department of Education at Rutgers University, in her essay From Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work Jean Anyon analyzes the nature of underprivileged education (2006).Anyon argues that depending on their social class, different levels of educations are available to young people. This mostly applies to schools in different districts and social communities and it can specially be seen in the difference between private and public schooling. To make the concept clear, she further applies this to a description of a cordial of mental segregation happening within the classroom in which, students sitting next to one another are rewarded differently solely based on their socioeconomic standing in the residential area. She does this by pointing out that,students in different s ocial-class backgrounds are rewarded for classroom behaviors that correspond to personality traits allegedly rewarded in the different occupational strata the working classes for docility and obedience, the managerial classes for initiative and personal assertiveness. (Anyon, 2006) This is the key ideal of Anyons theory. An example of the theory at work can be seen in research that finds project based learning prepares students for more pinch assessment, and prepares them to handle real world situations, as opposed to those in the textbook.PBL is most prevalent in private and high income community public schools. This creates a system where the students taught in the private schools are taught to think independently in a rational but unconfined way, while the lower income children are only taught to follow operating instructions. These differing perspectives on education have had a polemic and conflicting history in America. Gary Colombo based much of his research on this conflic t.Aware that the Constitution would be opposed by the working class, who made up the majority of the people, the construction of the deceleration and its signing were held in private. The media was used conceal the constitutions actual goal, while at the same duration to persuade people in its favor. Along with a literate media Colombo points out that the American government found it necessary, in particular during Thomas Jeffersons presidency, to promote and finance a literate working class.It is Colombos view that the sole purpose of their education was to develop individuals who would maintain the nation (2005). These educated individuals were viewed as secondary to their task. This is the first sign in American history of education being used to exploit people for the benefit of the government. By identifying the failure of Thomas Jefferson to educate the Native American people, Colombo shows that American education was initially designed with utterly no regard for the people .He best displays this conflict when he cites a letter written by a Native American to the President. our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same with yoursseveral of our young people were formerly brought up at the college of the northern provinces they were instructed in all your sciences but when they came back to us, they were bad runners ignorant of every means of brio in the woods unable to bear either cold or hunger knew neither how to build a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemythey were totally good for nothing. (Colombo, 2005)Here Colombo identifies that, quality in education is deemed only as good as its superpower to assimilate one into the culture in which they live. This assimilation is not one that produces equal opportunity for its participants. As previously proved by Anyon, socioeconomic conditions impede this dream dramatically from coming into fruition. Anyon argues that todays working class curriculums center more on teaching students to fol low instructions rather than teaching them how to authentically assess problems (2006). It just so happens the majority of these working class group tend to be Black students.She undeniably proves that the children of higher income families are not taught in this fashion, and they are steered more towards create skills in problem solving and decision making. If students are subject to the rent same nationwide testing, it is only just that they receive the same educational curriculums. Lower income students are being herded into remedial work, while the upper class students are being prepared for executive positions. This is an immoral practice, but there are risks that can occur if Anyons elitist curriculum is equally distributed throughout the country (2006).Everyone can not manage the corporation some have to toil for the sake of the company. The working class may potentially have a better understanding of executive duties, if Anyons curriculum is implemented (2006). With a grea ter appreciation for the business structure, working class employees may be educated enough to demand more benefits from their companies. The end result of implementing Anyons theory is that there will be a more diverse group of qualified candidates from which corporations select.This makes the face of corporate America as cultured as the nation its in, and it eliminates much of the disadvantaging prejudice that comes with elitism. This is test copy that it is wise to utilize Anyons elite curriculum throughout all school systems. Universities & Extended Education In 2002, Native Americans made up less than 1% the student population enrolled in college, and most of them be two year programs in tribal regions (Guillory & Wolverton, 2008). It is was also found that Native Americans reported having a low retention rate in American Universities, estimated as low as 15%.The statistics and the circumstance differing between Native Americans and African Americans in the their relationship s with Western culture. While blacks have had a complex history with the United States, the history of Native Americans has been virtually non-existent. The relationship the black community has with western culture has a much different effect on the young black college student attending for the first time than the native American community backing the young American Indian student. Numerous studies of Native American students who attend mainstream colleges and universities suggest that factors such as precollegeacademic preparation, family support, supportive and involved faculty, institutional commitment, and maintaining an active presence in home communities and cultural ceremonies are crucial elements that blow these students ability and/or desire to persist in college. (Guillory & Wolverton, 2008) These concerns by the Native American student are no different from those of any other student from any other cultural background the conflict arises when the ideals developed within the margin of the reservation contrast those in the outside world and the University.While African American communities, throughout the years, have had a history of political and social descent from the American government and western culture, they are still de jure a part of America and by that rule of law they can only revolt so much without impeding their own forth of life. Studies show that there is an overwhelming push by the Indian community in American reservations to stray from leaving the land and to avoid integration with the government.With over 304 American Indian reservations, the U. S. Federal government would just as easily prefer to give the land to the Indians for a decided jimmy and then have them pay property tax. This is a tactic that has long been avoided by the Native American Tribes, since 1887, when the Dawes Act legislated wide-scale private ownership of reservation lands in the United States strictly for American Indians. The plan called for an allotted 80 acres to be given to each Native American from each respective Tribe.It was the job of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to make sure these allotted lands stayed in a trust for at least 25 years, after which Native American land owners would receive a distinct for their land. The a fear that arose from this in many tribes was that the land would eventually be sold to non-Indian citizens run corporations or citizens, or that the tax on the land would be overwhelming for Tribal members who had no way of accruing income. The end result was a rejection of this proposal by native American Tribes.This only further exemplifies the nature of the relationship between Native Americans and the United States government. This inherent suspect of western culture is carried into the first year adjustment process for Native American students and makes it very difficult for them to integrate and eventually graduate from the program. In the article, Its About Family Native American Student Per sistence in Higher Education, researchers asses barriers to degree completion as they relate to Native American students at Washington State University, the University of Idaho, and Montana State University (Guillory & Wolverton, 2008).And 2002 May Americans represented less than 1% of all students enrolled in college. Year to year labor rates were uncertain, but throughout the years Native Americans have proven to have the lowest retention rate. The study points out that the lack of Native American faculty contributes to difficulty American Indians have in adjusting to Universities, but there has also been a recent push to train university faculty in better handling Native American.While this is also often true for African American students, it is very rare in the groundbreaking era that one can find a University where there are absolutely no black faculty, or at least some form of Black student organization for community support. The major conflict that arises for a Native Ameri can student in an American University stems from an unwillingness or incapability to integrate into western culture.While the same could be argued in reference to blacks, American Indians lack the same level of community support that is present in western society for black Americans. There are very few clubs in colleges for American Indians, very few organizations to address American Indian issues. On the other hand, because there is such a miniscule presence of Native Americans in the public school system, there is an unsaid push by school officials as well as western society to incorporate Native Americans into popular culture.This push is not promoted for the sake of bettering the American Indians In her article Margins of Acceptability, Katherine Ellinghaus assess the impact of reservation ideals on the ability of the Native American student to cross-over into the culture of Western Universities, but she points out Americas desire to claim land reserved for Native Americans and incorporate them into American society inadvertently created a need for these men and women to be adopted into the culture.Methods of promoting young men and women to marry Native Americans on college campuses and in different communities was widely further due to this need. This is something that is very different from how the interracial relationships between blacks and whites are perceived. The majority of African American physicians graduated from universities specifically designated for blacks. There was only a small number of northern universities that accepted black candidates for medical degrees followers the Civil War (Savitt, 2000).Following emancipation white northern missioner groups and former abolitionists, specifically the American Baptist Home Mission Society, American missional Association, and Freedmens Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church constructed a number of schools in the south to teach basic educational skills to blacks. These schools essentia lly taught former slaves practical job skills, literacy and eventually extended their teachings to medical education.The most distinguished and successful of these medical schools were in universities such has Howard in Washington, D. C., Leonard medical exam,School of Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Meharry Medical College in Nashville (Savitt, 2000). During the late 1880s, the majority of the African American population resided in the south, those blacks who studied to be physicians in missionaries eventually followed in the path of the white medical tradition and constructed their own medical school proprieties. The first of these institutions was Louisville National Medical College in 1888, then Hannibal Medical College (Memphis, 1889), and Chattanooga National Medical College (1899) (Savitt, 2000).The ability of African American students to establish early on success in the medical world and then return to establish black run institutions is prime example of th e difference between the reluctance of Native Americans to participate in education and the opportunities created for themselves. Black medical schools encountered many difficulties that their white counterparts did not. They also faced problems that black missional schools didnt have to confront.Missionary and proprietary school officials had equal ability and opportunity to raise money and garner community support among whites and blacks, but missionary schools have the advantage of being connected to a major university and being able to benefit from the resources. Missionary schools also held the advantage of being connected with nationally known and respected church organizations, which also served well in gaining sympathy a mom white Northerners. Proprietary colleges on the other hand were isolated and independent.There were no missionary magazines to report on their successes or to provide them with free advertising. These up-starting universities also had very few wealthy al umni to help funding for classrooms or to pay faculty. Nevertheless, these minor travel are more like leaps compared to the Native American experience in the medical field. Of the small few who did manage to attend universities and graduate, the likely-hood of them going on to become medical partitions was largely impeded by a pious adherence to the medicinal pr

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