Saturday, March 2, 2019
Sustainable Transport Policy
1. Developing Countries and gestateation displaceation in maturation countries is considered to be a signifi preservet influence on major cosmopolitan issues, m any(prenominal) of which ar associated with the state of the environs and of human flavor. match to G pull up stakesiam (2003), under demonstrable countries atomic number 18 taken to be those that qualify as borrowing members of the human being Bank, including the transitional economies, but the developed countries are taken to be the arrangement for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, excluding Mexico. Cities within ontogeny countries are opposite in their stinting, political and demographic aspects. However, economic purifyment fag end impart to yield in the driveway and hex infra social organization but fomite go awaypower slows this consecrate (Gwilliam, 2003). The existing city structure and political annals means that near of these cities are unable to provide efficie nt big bucks acquits services due to scatter pockets (Gwilliam, 2003). The quickly increase universe is connect with a below average proportion of the res publica that is allocated for persuade.Whilst other welkins, such(prenominal) as education and sanitation, improve with economic progress, conveyance problems force out be seen to worsen with economic development (Transport insurance policy consultative services, 2010). It terminate be difficult to examine common urban shipping issues in exploitation countries due to the contribution of interlinked trends in its operations. For instance, one of the important trends is population ontogeny the population density rate in urban areas was almost 45% in 1995 and it is expected to step-up to 60% by 2025 exploitation countries subscribe to a massive share of this rate of around(predicate) 90% ( way management & applied science Journal, 1998).Furtherto a greater extent, any append in the population clears to an incr ease in expect problems, such as car will power which has risen in developing countries in recent old age along with an increase in the anatomy of personally owned cars this overly relates to economic increment (Gakenheimer, 1999). The number of vehicles with two or three wheels is also rising, peculiarly in Asia (Gwilliam, 2003). These vehicles are characterized by easy mobility and affordability, but they are also a radical source of pollution (Abuhamoud et al., 2011). The absence of satisfactory public captivateation to pertain the population growth is another issue. This failure to develop these services is associated to its rail line with capital costs. Hence, another phenomenon emerges which is a citys sporadic growth without following a regular pattern. It makes it difficult for bulk to gain example from mass enthralation and means that the city needs additional nutrition for public transport and to improve the access to transport. However, these transportat ion trends are influenced potently by environmental and social standards which are completely linked to life quality and production. These involve over-crowding, energy wasting disease, air pollution, and avocation crashes (Road Management & engineer Journal, 1998).2. Transport problemsThe fundamental social and economic actions are peoples mobility and commodities. For this purpose, cars and trucks are the most common and important means of transportation utilise general and their numbers permit grown massively in developing countries peculiarly in cities where conventional transport is incompatible with the city structure development and highway infrastructure. Consequently, the system is exposed to a number of problems (Transport insurance policy consultive services, 2010). According to Gwilliam (2003), the problems of transport systems in developing countries are occupation congestion, environmental issues, base hit and poverty.2.1. CongestionThis phenomenon is comm on in developing countries, especially in megacities. The rate of urban growth and increasing car ownership has produced excessive congestion in developing countries. Few cities reach the rate of car use and congestion as those in developed countries, concord to the per capita income (Kutzbach, 2009). As Gwilliam (2003) states, congestion makes a reduction in the average get off speed in the daytime in the city centre. For instance, in Bangkok, Manila, Mexico and yarn-dye it dropped to 10km/hr or less, and 15km/hr or less in Kuala Lumpur and Sau Paulo. These resulted in increased travel time and a decrease in accessibility. In Rio de Janeiro and Bogota the average travel in one-way channels is 107 and 90 minutes respectively (Gakenheimer, 1999). Notwithstanding this, the number of cars in the majority of developing countries did not exceed 100 cars per 1000 persons, season in developed countries this has overtaken 400 cars per 1000 persons (Kutzbach, 2009). Car ownership growth in non-OECD countries is likely to be faster than population growth it reaches 15-20% (Gwilliam, 2003).According to Abuhamoud et al. (2011) there is a complex relationship between urban growth and transport services. soon close to 50% of the population live in cities and this is raising increasingly, and developing countries share approximately 95% of this growth (Candiracci, 2009). It has also to be shown that as the city grows, the distance from home to the worksite is increasing with a lack of detach transport and road facilities (Abuhamoud et al., 2011). As a result, car ownership and congestion is inevitable. In this context, Africa makes up about 14% of the planets population, tantamount(predicate) to about one billion people in 2007 the urban population rate was 38.7% with the metamorphose of 2% per course of instruction from 2005 to 2010, and the increase of vehicles during these 5 years was observed. Urbanization could be observed at a higher aim in North Africa, w hich was more than than 80% and in Libya, South Africa and Botswana more than 55% but the countries still confront a lack of road facilities and piteous vehicle quality (Abuhamoud, ibid).This type of urbanization can also be noticed in Asia. For example, master(prenominal)land China is exposed to a rapid urban growth which is flowingly about 43% and is associated with the countrys rapid economic growth. It is expected that this figure will increase to 70% in 2050. This is due to peoples immigration into urban areas which will affect the economy because the city energy consumption will be higher than rural areas. This will also be another grammatical constituent contributing to the b aneleersuit city congestion (Cheng and Hu, 2009). As Dargay at el., (2007) presents, the overall vehicle stock was 0.8 billion in 2002, but this is expected to increase to about 2 billion in 2030, of which 56% of vehicles will be owned by developing countries this was 24% in 2002. Consequently, ve hicle ownership growth may cause excessive congestion which can lead to side effects on the transportation system.Much more can be done to combat congestion, such as encouraging markets to be more active in supplying goods in active areas meliorate transport quality between cities stopping transport subsidies in cities astir(p) road management and structure by devoting a sufficient land for roadstead improving traffic management and improving planning institutions (Gwilliam, 2003). According to Kutzbach (2009), reducing costs and the wait period in bus displace by rising bus frequency can cause an increase in bus users, and then mass transit would be alter and congestion will decrease. Also, improving rail transport could offer a further option (Gakenheimer, 1999).2.2. Environment problemsTransport and movement withdraw a direct come to on the environment of cities in developing countries. As a result, it impacts on human health. According to studies conducted in Bangkok, Cai ro, Mexico City, Quito and Santiago, tenuous matter particles are common and when their volume is less than 2.5 microns of lead this can inflict serious reproachs to the public health. In addition to this, the direct of NO2 is still lower then WHO guidelines outline and there is also a high level of SO2 that is coming from increased coal use. This can damage the ozone which can be considered another threat to peoples health, especially in Mexico City and Santiago (Gwilliam, 2003).According to Transport Policy informative services (2010), transport growth and congestion leads to an increasing in the consumption of oil which means an increase in CO2 emissions which directly causes environmental pollution. As Candiracci (2009) states, pollution can cause the of death of people worldwide for instance, about 6500 people in Mexico and 170000 to 280000 a year in China are facing life threatening situations because of these originators. Furthermore, urban transportation is the of impo rt cause of increasing noise which is another type of pollution. Transport contributes about 25% of overall energy using and is continually increasing. The CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2004 fork out grown by almost 36.5% and it is expected to increase to approximately cxl% in 2050 with the greatest increase coming from developing nations (Transport Policy Advisory services, 2010). CO2 emission from vehicles did not exceed 6% in heaps however, it impacts 32% of people. Urban transport is the main source for 80-90% of lead spreads in these cities (Gwilliam, 2003).Additionally, there are a large number of motorcycles with 2 to 3 wheels which provides a wide range of transportation needs in Africa. For example, in Togo these vehicles provide 80% of transportation requirements, but also pollute the environment (Abuhamoud et al., 2011). It is also common in most Asian cities where it makes up about 75% of the fleet in Hanoi (Gwilliam, 2003). Generally, the poor environment condition is a n outcome of the high levels of congestion in developing countries. The structure of right aways transport seems unsatisfactory in the sustainability point of view, this is mainly by the reason of its disadvantages to the environment and to humanitys health (Transport Policy Advisory services, 2010).The environment can be improved by working to improve the quality of vehicles, implementing the honest inspection and maintenance (I/M) programme, using bare-assed motorcycle technology, improving system management and non-motorized modes, and running the own-price elasticity for petrol consumption (Gwilliam, 2003).2.3. SafetySafety is also another problem of transport systems in developing countries that is directly related to transport crashes and criminal accidents which excrete on roads or its surrounding. The amount of people who are fatally injured due to road transport accidents is almost one billion people annually, while 85% of this figure is in developing countries and 50% in urban areas. However, pedestrians and cyclists are exposed to safety issues much more than cars and those who ride on mass transport such a buses and trains. Accidents can remain a side effect on the victims psychological state and can affect the rate of travel and journeys do (Gwilliam, 2003). The bad quality of roads and vehicles in developing countries are the main reasons for safety problems, environment pollution, and congestion. For instance, the roads in the majority of cities in Africa are congested with motorcycles, which is the vehicle that is involved in the most accidents. This is primarily because a driver license for a motorcycle is not mandatory in this country (Abuhamoud et al., 2011). Public safety is also influenced by other aspects of road transport, such as air pollution, which is directly related to human health. another(prenominal) impact on safety is insufficient pedestrian space which should be as far as the road space. This has been applied in most citi es in China. The deficiency of bicycle paths in developing countries also decreases road safety (Transport Policy Advisory services, 2010).However, transport safety and security can be improved by considering a number of interactive approaches. Studies advert that most traffic accidents in developing countries occur in the mid-link of roads and at junctions (Gwilliam, 2003). Therefore, road safety can be enhanced by means of improving road quality and developing road space that is suitable enough for all road users.2.4. PovertyThe distributional impacts of transport developments which have declined to an unusual degree are another significant issue faced in developing countries. Poor people live in areas that have a lack of transportation facilities. Poor people depend on walking although and public transport services are not as required, therefore, walking or non-motorised vehicles such as bicycles are the main modes of transportation (Gwilliam, 2003). Poorer people tend to make fewer trips poor, take longer on their journeys and have worse safety. Studies have shown that in poorer areas there are 20 to 30% fewer journeys. These journeys take longer due to the lack of roads and transport for pedestrians at all times. The poor people in Rio de Janeiro evanesce on average more than 3 hours commuting to reach the worksite (Transport Policy Advisory services, 2010).Better safety for poorer people can be achieved finished the introduction of a number of actions such as the provision of damp quality transport which can increase the opportunity for poor people to access jobs, also improving the non-motorised and pedestrians path surface and pavement shape could help safety issues. Subsidizing the public transport sector to raise prudence to public passengers and their available means of transport would also help usefulness poor people, as would the construction of non-motorised transport network in cities (Gwilliam, 2003).3. Transport and lifeAs the Transpor t Policy Advisory services (2010) states, the conceit of urban transport problems appears to be important because it is directly linked to the cutting and essential spheres of life, such as the environment, society and economy. The transport can impact the environment through and through pollution emissions, especially in urban areas. Thus, it affects biodiversity. Transport impacts social life because it is strictly associated with accessibility levels, clean air, noise effect, and traffic accidents. However, there is also a strong relationship between transport and the economy in which it impacts on goods and peoples mobility. Accordingly, in implementing any program for the purpose of transport sustainability it should be taken into account what necessitates the expiation of all these elements.4. Transportation and the Future 4.1 Climate ChangeThe transport sector is defined as a rapid growth source of glasshouse gas emissions. In this context, the monumental increase of mot orization and car ownerships has influenced economic growth which leads to the occurrence of a big spay in babys room gas emissions, where this increase then causes global warming and humour change (Wright and Fulton, 2005). Climate change may be seen as a ample problem which faces transportation currently and also in the next (Chapman, 2007). However, while there are modes of public and non-motorized transport in developing cities, the poor quality of public transport and the inadequate service for non-motorized and pedestrians encourages peoples tendency to use private cars (Gwilliam, 2003). This then causes an increase in greenhouse gas emissions which represent a main reason of climate change occurrence. According to Wright and Fulton (2005), the greenhouse emissions from the transport sector globally is estimated to be about 24%, which grows 2.1% annually, and grows 3.5% in developing countries. It is expected to increase by about 30% by 2030. Therefore, the impacts may i nclude dramatic weather changes, increasing sea-levels, floods and health risks in the long-term. Therefore developing countries should work to sustain the current public and non-motorised transport to develop future sustainable transport. As the Road Management & Engineering Journal (1998) states, to mitigate the impacts of climate change in the future by 2050, the CO2 emissions needs to be cut by 50% globally. This goal can be achieved through improving furnish technology and finding a mode-shifting solution (Wright and Fulton, 2005).4.2. pennant OilPeak oil is another issue worth mentioning. It is strongly related to transportation in impairment of fuel consumption. In 2003 the rate of demand of oil increased by 3% which is equivalent to about 101 one cardinal million barrels annually (Aleklett, 2007). The decline in production of oil in the three greatest exporters Saudi Arabia, Russia and Norway is estimated to be 4 to 6 million barrels per day by 2030, and the implicati ons of an enormous oil shortage will appear in the transportation sector by the same year (Aleklett, 2007).Human health is influenced by these changes in economic and social aspects, more than which results from policy interferences. However, the peak oil impacts on the economy in terms of increasing the demand and price of oil, also impacts on increasing transport prices and the freight of food, goods and medicine. Therefore, it can create a health crisis even if fractional of the spare oil has been spent. In contrast to this, there are substantiative impacts such as the reduction of congestion and pollution emissions which can muffle climate change (Hanlon and McCartney, 2008).ConclusionIt is felt that transportation problems vary from other problems plaguing the developing countries due to it is worsening with economic development. Vehicle ownership growth may cause excessive congestion which leads to side effects on the transportation system wholly. The congestion can be red uced through improving the road quality and public transport, thereby increasing safety and decreasing environment pollution. The environment can be improved by improving vehicle quality, implementing the inspection and maintenance system (I/M), using in the raw motorcycle technology, non-motorized modes, and running the own-price elasticity for gasoline. It is recommended that implementing any program for the purpose of transport sustainability should take into consideration the elements affecting the environment, society and the economy. It is recommended that developing countries should work to concord the current public and non-motorised transport running, in order to developing future sustainable transport and to protect the climate and the energy. ReferencesAbuhamoud, M. A. A., Rahmat, R. A. O. K., & Ismail, A. (2011). Transportation and its concerns in Africa A review. The Social Sciences 6(1), pp. 51-63. online http//docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/sscience/2011/51-63.p df accessed October 22th 2013.Aleklett, K. (2007). Peak oil and the evolving strategies of oil importing and exporting countries (No. 2007-17). banter paper. online http//www.internationaltransportforum.org/jtrc/DiscussionPapers/DiscussionPaper17.pdf accessed October 26th 2013.Candiracci, S. (2009). Climate change, urbanization and sustainable urban transport in developing country cities. Energy & transport Policies Section. online http//www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/7997_10872_Sara%20Candiracci.pdf accessed October 24th 2013.Chapman, L. (2007). Transport and climate change a review. Journal of transport geography, 15(5), pp. 354-367. online http//www.boku.ac.at/fileadmin/_/nachhaltigkeit/Klimafreundliche_Arbeitsmobilit%C3%A4t/Chapman_2007_Transport_and_climate_change_a_review.pdf accessed October 26th 2013.Cheng, H., & Hu, Y. (2010). Planning for sustainability in Chinas urban development Status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project. Journal of environmental Monitoring, 1 2(1), pp. 119-126. online http//pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2010/em/b911473d/unauthdivAbstract accessed October 25th 2013.Dargay, J., Gately, D., & Sommer, M. (2007). Vehicle ownership and income growth, worldwide 1960-2030. 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Road Management & Engineering Journal. online 1-800-777-2338 http//www.usroads.com/index.html accessed October 22th 2013.Transport Policy Advisory Services, (2010). Callenges of urban transport in developing countries- a summary. online http//www.sutp.org/ins-pol-supporting-docs?download=391challenges-of-urban-transport-in-developing-countries-a-summary accessed October 20th 2013.Wright, L., & Fulton, L. (2005). Climate change relief and transport in developing nations. Transport Reviews, 25(6), pp. 691-717. online http//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/messages/downloadsexceeded.html accessed October 26th 2013.Wright, L., & Fulton, L. (2005). Climate change mitigation and transport in developing nations. Transport Reviews, 25(6), pp. 691-717. online http//citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/messages/downloadsexceeded. html accessed October 26th 2013.