Monday, March 4, 2019
Avian Influenza Essay
Avian influenza, also known as chick flu, is a zoonotic complaint with several different subtypes that affect loosely separate birds, however few can be contagious to humans. The obstruct overabundant avian influenza virus in humans is the extremely pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, which has caused over 380 confirmed cases in 15 countries (Rabinowitz, 2010). Majority of cases withstand been transmitted via bird-to-human, with r be cases of human-to-human transmission.Continued movie to the virus not only poses the bane of ongoing morbidity and mortality, but also the threat of H5N1 being able to adapt and change allowing preserve human-to-human transmission. (Rabinowitz, 2010). Human exposure to H5N1 begins with the natural host for the virus, wild birds, which is then transmitted to domestic birds, and then finally reaching humans as a host. Starting with wild birds, close to commonly waterfowl, the virus lives in the intestines and is sick through fecal m atter, saliva, and nasal secretions.Most wild birds are loathsome to infections associated with avian influenza A. Wild birds are exposed to the virus when they postdate into contact with contaminated nasal, respiratory, or fecal material from infect birds, most commonly fecal to oral transmission (Korteweg & Gu, 2010). Transmission to domestic birds, primarily bird, can occur with direct contact with infected birds or confirmatory exposure through contaminated dirt, cages, water, and feed. Domestic birds have itty-bitty to no resistance to the virus and suffer serious health issues, often resulting in death (Influenza Viruses, 2005).In the case a human is infected with H5N1, transmission routes are either through direct contact or confirmative contact. Direct contact consists of people holding, catching, hunting, or playing with unknowingly infected birds. Slaughtering, defeathering, processing and preparing poultry for consumption are other ways a person can be infected t hrough direct contact. Examples of indirect contact are touching contaminated surfaces and materials, swimming in or washing with contaminated water, living and working in areas with contaminated air, or ingesting the active virus in contaminated food (Rabinowitz, 2010).There is little evidence supporting human-to-human transmission and few cases have been confirmed. From what is known, intimate and close contact with infected individuals are possible routes of transmission (Avian Influenza A, 2005). The voltage for H5N1 to develop into a strain easily transmissible from person to person in a sustained matter poses as a threat for a possible pandemic infection (Influenza Viruses, 2005). Signs and symptoms associated with H5N1 are such(prenominal) comparable those of the more common seasonal flu virus fever, headache, sore throat, expectorate and rhinitis.Other symptoms include conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal complications, shortness of breath, lower respiratory problems, rhinor rhea, myalgia, diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphophenia, stricken liver function, renal impairment, and prolonged blood clotting (Apisarnthanarak, 2004). As of inch 2011, over 530 confirmed human cases of H5N1 have been found in 15 countries since 2003 (WHO image 1), 85% occurring within Asian countries. Countries with the highest prevalence rates are Vietnam, Egypt, and Indonesia. Median age of those infected is 18 years old (Korteweg & Gu, 2010).A contributing behavioral factor associated with the infirmity being more prevalent in children and young adults is the age groups participation in the slaughter, defeathering and cooking of poultry (Smallman-Raynor & Cliff, 2008). H5N1 had not been seen in humans prior to 1997, first presenting itself in China. The virus was then seen over again in humans in 2003, in Vietnam and again in China. By 2007, H5N1 had spread to Cambodia, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Laos, Myanmar, Nigeria and Pakistan (Smallman-Raynor & C liff, 2008).The following public health organizations have been working closely together to track and control recent outbreaks knowledge base Health Organization (WHO), Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and Food and floriculture Organization (FAO) (Smallman-Raynor & Cliff, 2008). WHO has been responsible for providing recent data and statistics regarding H5N1 in humans. Avian Influenza is covered by GAR, WHOs Global Outbreak Alert and resolution Network, which is responsible for monitoring and keeping surveillance on the disease. OIE is responsible for reporting recent data relating specifically o outbreaks of avian influenza in animals. FAO, working collaboratively with OIE and WHO, sets the context for national and regional strategies, policies, programs and projects designed to control and rule out the disease (Strategy and Policy) from spreading. According to a study by Smallman-Raynor and Cliff (2008), indispensableness rates for H5N1 are greater than 50% in observed cases, which is much higher than the common flu virus. The virus has spread to over 50 countries on three continents, being labeled as a panzootic disease (animal disease equivalent to a pandemic in humans).H5N1 first go through species barriers to humans in 1997 and has extended its host range to several other mammals, causing severe disease and death. An approach to control the spread of this disease amongst birds has been culling of exposed birds, quarantine and disinfecting. However, Avian Influenza continues to spread due in part to migratory birds becoming infected (Smallman-Raynor & Cliff, 2008). The viruss cogency to evolve poses as threat and is currently classified by WHO at Phase 3 of the global pandemic alert for influenza.