Sunday, August 11, 2019
The Historical Development of the Bureaucracy Essay
The Historical Development of the Bureaucracy - Essay Example Political scientists have identified four major periods in the history of American bureaucracy. The first, called the Government by Gentlemen (1789 - 1820), was marked by the dominance of people from elite families in the professional bureaucracy. In the next period (1830-1870), the bureaucratic positions were filled up by members of the major political parties that were lucky to win the presidential elections. In this connection, the number of people from middle and lower strata of society among the officials has dramatically increased. Many progressive changes were introduced into bureaucracy in 1880-1920 - it was reformed with the focus on balanced, rational administration. The fourth period that coincided with the period of contemporary history deepened depoliticization and professionalization of the bureaucracy. Its formation is now conditioned by competitive selection (Merit System). At the end of the 20th century, the number of federal employees in the United States has reache d 3 million people. 90% of all job positions were filled solely through a competitive process. In recent times the bureaucracy is regulated by a number of decrees and laws imposing specific legal and ethical standards, for instance, the U.S. PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Executive Order of October 17, 1990 - Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. One of the provisions runs that public service is a sphere of activity that excludes any personal or other financial interests that can prevent acting in good faith.